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Dr. Cutting, former Dean of the Medical School, received 
his AB degree in 1928 and his MD degree in 1932 — both 
from Stanford University. Following a residency at Stan- 
ford, he was a Fellow of the National Research Council at 
the Courfauld Institute of Biochemistry in London in 1935- 
36, and from 1936-38 he was a Fellow in Experimental 
Therapeutics and Medicine at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. 
Recently he was elected to the New York Academy of 
Sciences. He resigned as Dean of the Medical School last 
year in order that he could continue his research work in 
Experimental Therapeutics. 


The story of the Medical School starts with Elias Samuel 
commenced his medical studies at the age of 16. These were 
University of St. Louis, Missouri. This was apparently an instit 
was given the MD degree. He immediately started to practice 
figure, at one time president of the county medical society, b 
secting material from the graveyard. A combination of pre 
San Francisco. 

Cooper arrived in San Francisco in 1 855 and in the foil 
medical society, the first two medical publications in Califor 
liked and disliked, praised for ligating the innominate artery 
advertising. Although controversial in his own times, it is his 

Doctor Cooper's school, The Medical Department of the 
of 1 859 instruction was started in Cooper's own office at Mi 

students thirteen, of whom two constituted the first gradu- 
ating class at the end of the term. The University of the 
Pacific, the first chartered college of the Pacific Coast, 
was then at San Jose. Now it is the College of the Pacific 
at Stockton. In 1 861 two men who were to bring much to 
the school were added to the faculty, Henry Gibbons and 
Cooper's nephew, Levi Cooper Lane. Also, in addition to 
the teaching facilities at Cooper's Ear, Eye and Ortho- 
pedic Clinic, St. Mary's Hospital and the City and Marine 
Hospital were used to some extent. 

In 1 862 Cooper died, still only 39 years of age. Never- 
theless, the school, with 7 graduates by 1864 and public 
announcement of a move to larger quarters for the next 
session, ran smoothly until Dr. H. H. Toland, long anti- 
pathetic to Cooper, announced that he was starting a 
rival school. 

Instruction started in the Toland school in November, 
1864, and the Cooper school quietly closed its doors, its 
students and faculty for the most part moving over to the 
newer school. Apparently this move to Toland reflected 
the feeling that the city did not need two medical schools 
as much as it needed cooperation. The Cooper element 
proved to be not easily assimilable, however, and al- 
though Lane delivered the Valedictory Address to the 
graduating class in 1869, the Cooper group left to re- 
establish the old school in 1870. The lapse was thus six 

Cooper, pioneer surgeon. He was born in Ohio in 1 822 and 
at first with his older brother Essais in Ohio, and later at the 
ution of doubtful quality, but here Cooper, at the age of 19, 
in Southern Illinois and for the next 1 4 years was a vigorous 
ut at another scourged in the newspapers for exhuming dis- 
ssures, particularly his own restless spirit, took him then to 

owing seven tempestuous years of life started the first State 
nia and the first medical school in the West. He was strongly 

and removing ovarian tumors and condemned for extensive 
extraordinary energy and vision which are now remembered. 

University of the Pacific, was organized in 1 858, and in May 
ssion Street near Third. The faculty numbered six, and the 

Toland Medical School had in the meantime entered 
into negotiations with the University of California and in 
1 870 the degrees were granted under the auspices of the 
latter institution. Relations, however, were not harmonious 
and Toland withdrew his faculty; then in 1872 a satis- 
factory agreement was reached and the Toland school be- 
came the Medical Department of the University of Cali- 
fornia. It is interesting that this university affiliation pre- 
ceded that of the Cooper school by 36 years. The Toland 
school admitted the first woman student in 1 873, Cooper 
the first in 1877. 

Levi Cooper Lane ( 1 828-1 902 ) , the nephew who suc- 
ceeded Cooper as the dominant figure in the medical 
school, was also born in Ohio, in 1 828, six years after the 
birth of his uncle. At the age of 1 6 he started to teach 
school and then after three years went to Union College 
from which he was graduated. He next studied with his 
two uncles Essais and Elias and finally attended Jeffer- 
son Medical College in Philadelphia for a year, graduat- 
ing in 1851, aged 23, with the MD degree. His collegiate 
and medical educations thus lasted four years. After in- 
terning at the New York State Hospital on Ward's Island 
he took the competitive examination for assistant sur- 
geon in the Navy. He placed first, perhaps because after 
writing the required essay in 30 minutes, he filled out the 
time by translating it into Latin. The next 4 years he was 
in the Navy although furloughs allowed brief study in 

Gottingen and a visit fo San Francisco. In 1861 he 
joined his uncle in San Francisco and served as pro- 
fessor of physiology in the school. As he lived until 
1902, many still alive remember him well, though only 
his later years. It is recalled that it was a nurse's duty 
in the morning to help him into rubbers as he came into 
the hospital. He wanted to track in no germs. Another 
evidence of his germ consciousness was the bichloride 
of mercury he had incorporated into the wall plaster 
of Lane Hospital. Patients came to him from far and 
wide because of his reputation as a surgeon, even 
after his eyesight and hands were failing. At this time 
he would make the first incision and then a strong arm, 
often Emmett Rixford's, would somehow slide in front 
of him and Dr. Lane would finish the operation a pre- 
sumably grateful spectator. 

The Cooper school, when first revived by Dr. Lane 
in 1870, continued as the Medi- 
cal Department of the University 
of the Pacific, but the sessions 
were held in the Chapel of the 
University (City) College then on 
Stockton Street near Geary. Two 
years later by friendly agree- 
ment the medical school changed 
its affiliation to the latter uni- 
versity and became the Medical 
College of the Pacific. 

Upon revival of the school, 
Henry Gibbons ( 1 808-1 884) , the 
Quaker physician who had joined 
the first Cooper school in 1861, 
became Professor of the Practice 
of Medicine. He was the son of 
a physician and the first of four 
generations of Gibbons who have 
served the medical school faith- 
fully. In addition to his support 
of the new school the senior Gib- 
bons was instrumental in the for- 
mation and operation in the early 
years of the State Board of 
Health and the Board of Medical 
Examiners. Henry Gibbons' son, 
Henry Gibbons, Jr., became the 
dean of the school upon its res- 
toration in 1870 and continued in this position for an 
amazing 41 years, until his death in 1911, three years 
after the union with Stanford. He also was Professor 
of Materia Medica and Therapeutics in the earlier years 
and Professor of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and 
Children in later years. 

Another long-time family devotion is that of the 
Barkans. The first, Adolph Barkan (1845-1913), a 
native of Hungary, came to San Francisco in 1869 and 
became the Professor of Ophthalmology and Otology 
in 1873. He was the first in San Francisco to remove 
foreign bodies from the eye with the aid of a magnet 
but is now remembered particularly as the founder and 
benefactor of the Historical Collection in Lane Library. 
Although he had retired from active practice and had 
returned to Europe, he was elected president of the 
college in 1911 just before its affiliation with Stanford. 

The Fall of 1882 marked the last graduation of the 
Medical College of the Pacific. Dr. Lane, who had been 
president, invited the faculty to join him in a new build- 
ing and under a new name, Cooper Medical College. 
With $125,000 he had built a splendid new medical 

school on the corner of Sacramento and Webster 
Streets. To this building he added in 1890 a second, 
containing Lane Hall, and in 1894 opened the adja- 
cent Lane Hospital. His benefactions then totaled about 
$600,000 and had been supplemented by land and 
money from Captain James McDonald in the amount 
of $58,000 as well as substantial gifts from Claus 
Spreckels and several others. In the vestibule of the 
hospital Dr. Lane placed the following plaque: "This 
hospital, erected in the year 1893 by Levi Cooper Lane, 
physician and surgeon, with money earned by himself 
in his profession, is given by him to suffering humanity 
and to the healing art in the hope that the former may 
here find refuge and relief; the latter exercise of hu- 
man skill and intelligent sympathy." 

As Cooper Medical College the school entered a long 
period of productive life. Many of its graduates are 
still alive though few are still in practice. From the first 
it was strong as a surgical school. 
The recently abandoned "E" 
Ward in Lane Hospital was for 
years the "Emergency" ward, and 
house officers lived conveniently 
nearby in what was in later years 
the Women's Medical Ward. Clin- 
ical teaching at the San Fran- 
cisco Hospital, to which full ac- 
cess was obtained in 1872, con- 
tinued; although not until more 
recent times did it become a prin- 
cipal teaching adjunct. 

Dr. Lane inaugurated two sets 
of lectures. The first, the Lane 
Popular Lectures, started in 1883, 
suggest that like his uncle he did 
not mind being somewhat in the 
public eye and ear. This series 
was abandoned only in the last 
five years when other means of 
public entertainment and instruc- 
tion competed for that eye and 
ear. The second set, the Lane 
Medical Lectures, started in 1 895 
with Sir William Macewen, Re- 
gius Professor of Surgery of the 
University of Glasgow as guest 
speaker. These have continued 
usually in alternate years with only brief lapses during 
the Ellinwood affair, discussed later, and during World 
War II. Names like Allbutt, Senn, Foster, Welch, Man- 
son, Fitz, Fuchs, Billings, Flexner, Aschoff, d'Herelle, 
Straub, Drummond, Drinker and Dodds have made these 
the outstanding medical lectures on the Coast. 

In 1898 an event occurred which was an indication 
of how the school would meet the reformation in med- 
ical education which would come in the next ten years. 
These were the years just preceding the Flexner report 
which finally pointed out that hospital-trade schools 
were about through, and that schools must embrace 
academic changes of the university type to survive the 
entrance of science into medicine. The significant event 
was the appointment of the first full-time, salaried pro- 
fessor in the medical school. He was William Ophuls, 
professor of pathology. Born in New York and educated 
in Germany, Dr. Ophuls was a shy, diffident man whom 
the nurses were wont to tease when he first came to 
Lane Hospital where he lived in the attic. He became a 
widely recognized pathologist and was the dean of the 
school from 1916 to 1933. 

Dr. Lane died in 1902 leaving still two more outstanding 
legacies, a surgical succession and the endowment of a 
library. Of the former, two men stand out for especial re- 
membrance. Both had long periods as assistants to Dr. Lane 
and after his death became outstanding surgical leaders for 
the next generation. One was Stanley Stillman, passionate, 
volatile, fiery and knuckle-rapping, for many years the pro- 
fessor of surgery at Lane. The other was the massive, gruff, 
but kindly Emmett Rixford, remembered by all the middle- 
aged and older Stanford graduates with much affection. 
Rixord was like the last of the bare-fisted fighters who wore 
gloves only when it became the rule. He thought nothing 
of turning from an operation, drawing on the blackboard, 
and then with a dash through bichloride returning to the 
operation. When Stillman was in trouble, he would shout 
for Rixford who would bring calm to the emergency. Dr. 
Rixford was a scholar of literature, a collector of fossils, a 
sailor, and a Sierra mountaineer. Mount Rixford is a rugged 
granite peak just south of the Rae Lakes which he probably 
first climbed. 

In the second legacy, the library, Dr. Rixford also played 
a major part. Mrs. Lane died soon after her husband. One 
third of the Lane estate of about $600,000 was left to 
establish Lane Medical Library. The balance was bequeathed 
to Dr. C. N. Ellinwood, then president of the College, pre- 
sumably in trust for the Library, as the law precluded leav- 
ing more than one third of the estate directly to the library. 
Dr. Rixford has recounted the sad deterioration of the next 
5 years during which Dr. Ellinwood came to consider the 
bequest a personal one and finally in 1907 was removed 
from the presidency and from further association with the 
school. The library, however, was formally created in 1906 
with 8000 volumes and had become the nucleus of the out- 
standing medical library of the west. This growth resulted 
almost entirely from Dr. Rixford's personal efforts. He got 
large numbers of duplicates from the Surgeon General's 
library, boxing them for shipment himself, then more dupli- 
cates from the New York Academy of Medicine, and finally 
arranged the purchase of the New York Hospital Library. 


Dr. Barkan's gifts increased the number and the special 
value of the library. The collection now contains some 
150,000 volumes housed in a handsome building built in 
1912. One other person is to be thought of in connection 
with the library, Miss Louise Ophuls, Dr. Ophuls' sister, who 
was for 30 years the patient and helpful librarian. 

Beginning in 1901, there was discussion of a union of 
the Medical College with Stanford University. The desira- 
bility was apparent to Dr. Lane when he faced the increasing 
costs of full-time faculty members and before he died he 
released the trustees from any restrictions which might pre- 
vent such a union. However, Stanford was then not ready 
to entertain the expense of a salaried medical faculty, al- 
though Dr. Jordan, the president of Stanford, wrote that he 
would favor the union if it became practicable. By 1906 
Jordan recommended to his trustees that they accept Cooper 
Medical College on the condition that it be used for the 
time being as a school of medical research. This, however, 
was not entirely satisfactory to the Cooper faculty. Finally, 
in 1908, the Stanford trustees adopted a transfer agreement 
but with a stipulation that costs should not exceed $25,000 
yearly. The classes at Cooper continued until all the stu- 
dents then enrolled were graduated in 1912. In the mean- 
time instruction was planned for a first Stanford class, on 
the Stanford campus, in 1910. 

Instruction at Stanford actually began in 1909, a year 
earlier than scheduled, with John M. Stillman, the brother 
of Stanley Stillman, as acting executive of the new "Depart- 
ment of Medicine." Of the 15 men who made up the first 
Stanford medical faculty (7 on the campus; 8 in San Fran- 
cisco), two are still alive and full of recollections of these 

early days. The first, 


Ill Sf . 

office eons.- 







POK visiTS HE 1.- 


Robert E. Swain, who 
then was an Associ- 
ate Professor of 
Chemistry, later 
served as acting 
president of the Uni- 
versity and now lives 
on the campus. The 
other, Arthur W. 
Meyer, Professor of 
Human Anatomy, 
lives in Palo Alto. 
Amongst his remem- 
brances is the occa- 
sion on which he was 
offered the entire 
Stanford Museum for 
his department of 
anatomy. He thought 
it was too ornate, 
however, and pre- 
ferred to remain in 
the rear portion, a partially restored relic of the 1906 earth- 
quake which still houses the department. The other campus 
names were Jenkins (Physiology), McFarland (Histology), 
Price (Zoology), and Snow (Hygiene); the San Francisco 
names were Barkan (Eye), Gibbons (Obstetrical), Hirsch- 
felder (Medicine), S. Stillman and Rixford (Surgery), Ophuls 
(Pathology) and Cheney (Medicine). Ray Lyman Wilbur 
was appointed as Professor of Clinical Medicine and Execu- 
tive Officer, but was on leave during the first year of in- 
struction. Of these 15 pioneers, five continued to teach med- 
ical students until well into the 1930's and a legion of 
California physicians speak of them with affection, some- 
times still mixed with awe, from their student days? The next 
year (1910-11) two outstanding newcomers were added 
to the faculty, both joining Dr. Meyer in the long building 
on the campus. These were Albert C. Crawford, Professor 
of Pharmacology, whose work on epinephrine had marked 
the first isolation of a hormone, and Hans Zinsser in Bac- 

Left to Right: Arthur W. Meyer, Professor of Anatomy, Emeritus; Ray 
Lyman Wilbur, Dean 1911-16; William Ophuls, Dean 1916-1933; 
Thomas Addis, Professor of Medicine. 

teriology, later to be famed as an investigator of typhus 
and as a literate author. Others who started to teach that 
year included James R. Slonaker in physiology, whose re- 
volving cages for rats were widely used, Clara Stoltenberg, 
whose problems in neurology thrilled many a patient-hun- 
gry student, and Earnest C. Dickson, about whom a special 
note is in order. He started in pathology, later was the 
chairman of the department of medicine, and then for many 
years was the head of the Department of Public Health. 
His original work on botulism and later on coccidiomycosis 
brought the new school wide attention. One more member, 
who came in 1911-12, must be added to this recounting of 
near-charter members of the faculty. This was Thomas Addis, 
trained in Edinburgh, who, as a young man, was interested 
in diabetes and then in renal disease, subsequently becom- 
ing an international authority in the latter field. He and 
Charles Danforth, who followed Meyer as executive in 
anatomy, were the two first century members of the medical 
faculty recognized by membership in the National Acad- 
emy of Sciences. Dr. Danforth, who was elected to the Acad- 
emy in the early twenties for his work in genetics, is still 
actively working in the same field although it is several 
years since he retired from his post in anatomy. These were 
the men who set the pattern which the medical school has 
now followed for another 50 years. It has been a pattern 
of harmony between preclinical and clinical, each respect- 
ing the other. It has also been one in which the ideal has 
been to combine teaching and research, with a premium on 

Dr. Wilbur was dean of the Medical department from 
1911 until 1916 when he succeeded Dr. Branner as presi- 
dent of the university. Enlargement of the physical plant, as 
well as of the faculty, was undertaken during his office. In 
addition to the restoration (1911) of the building for an- 
atomy, pharmacology and bacteriology, and the building 
of Lane Library (1912), the medical school building in San 
Francisco was remodeled to provide out-patient clinics, and 
pharmacology was moved in 1913 to this building. Stanford 
Hospital was started in 1916, and plans were laid for the 
Nurses' Residence, which, however, was not started until 
1920, when the assistance of the nursing alumnae made it 
possible. Other innovations were the requirement of an in- 
terne year before the M.D. degree was granted (1913) 
and a decrease in required course-work, allowing time for 
electives. The modern association with the San Francisco 
Hospital began in 1915 when two wards in the newly fin- 
ished hospital were assigned to Stanford. 

Dr. Ophuls' deanship began with the disruptions of staff 
caused by World War I, but in spite of these the hospital 

and nurses' home were built and the school entered a long 
productive period. 

It is not practicable to list here the many new faces in 
the faculty, some growing up within the school and others 
coming from other schools, especially Johns Hopkins. Each 
student would have his own select list of heroes, probably 
biased by his interests, but a few must be mentioned from 
anyone's thinking. 

In medicine, Walter A. Hewlett's unfortunately brief but 
brilliant career was followed by the long term of Arthur L. 
Bloomfield. A generation of students learned from this su- 
perb teacher whom they still call "the professor" with 
merged affection and respect. Dr. George Barnett, Dr. 
Bloomfield's counterpart at the San Francisco Hospital, was 
also a much loved teacher. The Bloomfield and the Barnett 
Professorships will carry their names in the future. In surgery 
Dr. Holman, Dr. Eloesser and Dr. Reichert, in obstetrics Dr. 
Emge, in pediatrics Dr. Faber, in radiology Dr. Chamberlain 
and Dr. Newell, in pathology Dr. Oliver, in psychiatry Dr. 
Mehrtens, and in pharmacology Dr. Hanzlik — all these 
made strong and lasting impressions on the students in San 
Francisco. On the campus, Dr. Martin and Dr. Weymouth 
in physiology and Dr. Schultz in bacteriology join this list 
of emeriti no student will forget. 

Building hopes were centered in the late 20's on a splen- 
did new structure planned for the Buchanan Street frontage 
but the stock market crash quelled these hopes completely. 
However, 1929 saw the Hertzstein bequest founded; this 
Lectureship, like the Lane Lectureship, has brought speakers 
from far parts of the world: Orbelli from Russia, Braun- 
Menendez from Argentina and many another. 

To sophomore students coming up to San Francisco from 
the campus in January 1929 the medical school was a 
wonderful world. Recollections come of Dr. Barnett reading 
from Candide and one's "first" patient in the big ward at 
the County Hospital; of Dr. Reichert, sterile in dog surgery, 
brushing students so that he could have a pointed example 
of contamination; of Dr. Wyckoff's beautiful slides, but a 
sleepy, dark Room 311; of Dr. Hanzlik's love for the small 
print; of classmates now old friends. Thoughts of the next 
years run from the rapid fire of William Dock to the old- 
school gentleness of William F. Cheney, and from the urbane 
Walter Schaller to the sartorial Leonard Ely. These times 
were perhaps the equivalent of a sort of end-Victorian era, 
but they have led to a famous answer as to what was a 
good medical school: "Oh, Stanford, about 1929." 

After Dr. Ophuls died early in 1933, Henry G. Mehrtens 
was appointed acting dean. Dr. Mehrtens, professor of 
psychiatry in the early days before psychoanalysis was a 
religion, had what would now be a very modern attitude 
to psychiatry. Analytic psychopathology and biochemical 
psychopathology were both of intense interest to him. He 



Left to right: Henry Gibbons, Professor of the Practice of Medicine; 
George Barnett, Professor of Medicine; Arthur L. Bioomfield, Pro- 
fessor of Medicine, Emeritus; Robert R. Newell, Professor of Medicine, 
Emeritus (Biophysics). 

had no closed sectarian doors. This telling aphorism 
was his: "To understand a patient you have to roll on 
the floor with him." Unfortunately Dr. Mehrfens died 
at the early age of 48 before his real influence could 
be felt in his new position. 

Loren R. Chandler, one of the wisest and most re- 
spected men in Stanford's history, followed Dr. Mehr- 
tens. He was graduated from the school in 1923 and 
after further surgical training, was a practicing San 
Francisco surgeon until called to the dean's post. His 
administrative talent, however, was his greatest endow- 
ment, continually called on during the 20 years he was 
in office. First there were the stringencies of the de- 
pression, and then medicine became big business. Re- 
search also became big business with governmental 
support bringing new complications. Lastly the second 
world war, and the accelerated program of teaching it 
required despite a curtailed 
staff, demanded much organ- 
izational skill. In 1939 the 
Ruth Lucie Stern Research Lab- 
oratory which houses several 
departments was added and 
allowed some relief to the in- 
sistent need for more space, 
particularly for the increased 
research. Dr. Chandler's long 
service is fortunately not yet 
over and he is still teaching 
actively in the school. 

The last five years of the 
first century were, in a way, 
really the first five of the next. 
In 1953 the university admin- 
istration decided that the time 
had come when all the med- 
ical school should be moved 
from San Francisco to the cam- 
pus and the wheels were set 
in motion to accomplish this 
end. The great academic 
strength which this move will 
bring will be the theme of the 
second century of the school's 
history. Thus the old school has 
ended and the new one begins. 

Source credits for the facts 

in this recounting of the school's history are gratefully 
acknowledged: Robert Whitfield's thesis; Hans Barkan's 
fascinating account (S.M.B. 12:145, '54); the talks of 
Emmett Rixford and many conversations with Clara de 
Forest; finally, the stories I have heard since boyhood 
from my mother. 


Left to right: Dr. Hirshfelder, Dr. Lane, Dr. Barkan, Professor McEwen 
[Glasgow) , Dr. Stiliman. 

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Dr. Danforth, member of the faculty of the Department of Anatomy at 
Stanford from 1922-1953 and Executive from 1945-1953, received 
his AB degree from Tufts in 1908 and MA degree in 1910. He was 
awarded the Ph.D. degree from the Washington University of St. Louis 
in 1912. In addition to these he was awarded an honorary Sc.D. 
degree from Tufts in 1941. In spite of the fact that he retired from 
active teaching in 1953, he still is very much interested in research 
and maintaining his labs in the department building where he spends 
much of his time. 


During the hundred years since Eiias Samuel Cooper gathered a nucleus of physicians to form the first medical faculty 
on the West Coast there have been many teachers of anatomy in the institution which in time came to bear his name, and 
still later that of Stanford University. 

It is clear that from the first anatomy held an important place in the estimation of these early teachers of medicine. 
In 1858, when the University of the Pacific, then located in Santa Clara, took the new group under its wing in order to 
give it legal status and authority to grant the M.D. degree, we find Elias Samuel Cooper listed as Professor of Anatomy 
and Surgery in their newly created Department of Medicine. Thus we may count Dr. Cooper as the first of our anatomists. 
With him the teaching of anatomy was neither incidental nor perfunctory, for even before coming to California he had 
opened a dissecting room in Peoria, Illinois, with lectures and demonstrations for medical students and practitioners. His 
nephew, Levi Cooper Lane, tells with reverence of his uncle's unremitting devotion to anatomy and other matters of med- 
ical interest. 

In 1861 -'62, while Dr. Cooper was still Professor of Anatomy and Surgery, Levi Cooper Lane became Professor of 

Physiology, and about a year later succeeded his uncle 
as Professor of Anatomy. For six or eight years after the 
temporary suspension of the school and its reorganization 
in 1870, he continued to be listed as Professor of Surgery 
and Anatomy, this time in the Medical School of the 
Pacific, which was in fact the same school as before, but 
now operating independently. That Dr. Lane, like his 
uncle, attached great importance to what we now call 
the pre-clinical sciences is indicated, for example, in his 
opening lecture in Physiology for 1861 -'62 in which he 
made the comment that "The science of Physiology is most 
intimately associated with that of Anatomy. Without a 
knowledge of Anatomy, the principles of Physiology can 
never be well understood." "Anatomy and Physiology," 
he went on to say, "are twin diamonds in the hilt of the 
scalpel that illuminate its blade." Perhaps he was recall- 
ing at the time that anatomy and physiology have tradi- 
tionally been associated with each other, as witness the 
early founding of journals devoted to these two subjects 
in the English, French, German, Russian and other lan- 

In the faculty roster for 1873 William Douglas ap- 
peared as Demonstrator of Anatomy, and a year later 
Edwin Bently was listed under Dissection and Microscopic 
Anatomy. This same year we first encounter the name of 
Joseph H. Wythe at the beginning of his long period of 
service in the Medical College of the Pacific and its con- 
tinuation as the Cooper Medical College. Dr. Wythe 

(M.D., LL.D. F.R.M.S.) was an interesting personality. Born 
and trained in England, he served as an assistant Army 
Surgeon during our Civil War, after which he completed 
a course in divinity and taught histology and microscopy 
here on the Coast. His major interest seems to have been 
hematology, but he wrote a comprehensive manual of 
histology and two companion laboratory guides. He also 
contributed various articles on surgical procedure, includ- 
ing the description of a method for successful mastectomy. 
One of his poems, "The Lifted Veil," can be found in the 
Stanford Library. It has been said of this gifted English- 
man that he could preach an inspiring sermon on Sunday, 
give an illuminating lecture in histology on Monday, and 
perhaps skillfully remove a fibroid on Tuesday . . . Per- 
haps some former student of this versatile Englishman 
could fill in the schedule for the rest of the week. 

In 1881, Dr. Douglas was teaching Clinical Surgery 
and Anatomy and Richard H. Plummer had appeared as 
Lecturer in Anatomy. In 1884 Dr. Plummer became Pro- 
fessor of Anatomy and continued in that capacity for ten 
or more years. As president of the California State Med- 
ical Society, he made a strong plea for increasing en- 
trance requirements and strengthening the pre-clinical 
subjects. It seemed to his students, so one of them has 
written, that he had committed f the whole of Gray's An- 
atomy to memory and, if need be, could repeat it ver- 
batim — a feat credited to many another anatomist in 
days when didactic teaching was in vogue. 


Left to right: William W. Greulich, 
Professor; Donald J. Gray, Professor 
and Executive; Hadley Kirkman, Pro- 
fessor; Robert S. Turner, Professor. 
Below: David L. Basseft, Professor. 

Dr. Charles E. Farnum was 
Demonstrator of Anatomy in 
1882 and later succeeded Dr. 
Plummer as Professor. We 
hope it was an unfair critic 
who wrote that Dr. Farnum 
was too good an anatomist to 
be a good surgeon. Like Sen- 
ator Stanford, who was of 
about the same era, Dr. Far- 
num was much interested in 
race horses and, among other 
things, did important original 
work in the artificial insemina- 
tion of these animals. Suspecting that the proportion of 
the contractile to the tendinous parts of a muscle might 
bear an important relation to its efficiency, he is said to 
have had the carcass of one of his animals hoisted to the 
roof of his office building at Third and Mission, where he 
worked at its dissection whenever the wind was favorable. 
Dr. Farnum, continuing as an active anatomist until 
1899, was followed by Dr. Albert H. Taylor, who had 
begun as assistant Demonstrator several years before. 
Dr. Taylor remained until the earthquake and fire of 1 906, 
when he moved to Fresno. Later, however, he returned to 
San Francisco, where he continued in practice for many 
years. At least during a part of Dr. Taylor's incumbency, 
Joseph L. Howard, M.R.C.S., Eng., served first as Assistant 
Demonstrator and then as Instructor in Anatomy. 

From 1895 to 1900, Thomas George Inman, with de- 
grees in pharmacy and medicine, appeared first as Assist- 
ant Demonstrator in Anatomy and later as Instructor in 
Surgical Anatomy. Dr. Inman later turned his attention to 
other phases of medicine. Emeritus now for many years, 
he is the last anatomist of the Cooper era whose name 
still appears in the current Stanford Register. 

Another man who came to the fore in the final years 
of the Cooper Medical College was Frank Ellsworth Blais- 
dell. He headed the list of anatomists from 1 907 to 1 909, 
when he was followed by Arthur William Meyer, the first 
anatomist to be appointed by Stanford. Dr. Blaisdell 
taught various aspects of anatomy, including applied and 

surgical, for many years; then ultimately, like so many 
of his predecessors, became a member of the surgery 

For the pre-clinical departments, the transition between 
Cooper and Stanford was not so abrupt as might be 
imagined. For a number of years Professors O. P. Jenkins 
and F. M. McFarland of Physiology and C. C. Price of 
Zoology had been assisting with courses at Cooper and 
they, with Dr. Blaisdell, provided a very satisfactory 
liaison between the old and the new. It is interesting to 
note in passing that in the course of his career Dr. Blais- 
dell became widely known as an outstanding student of 
the Coleoptera and Dr. McFarland was perhaps the world 
authority on nudibranch mollusks. After retiring from 
teaching both of these men rendered valuable service to 
the California Academy of Sciences, the former as Re- 
search Associate in Entomology, the latter as its President 
and guiding spirit for many years. 

The final merger of Cooper with Stanford had been 
contemplated for a number of years, but President Jor- 
dan of Stanford was reluctant to assume the responsibility 
of a medical school unless he could feel assured that it 
would take its place in the front rank of such institutions. 
If Stanford were to have a medical school at all, it must 
be of the first quality. When the die was finally cast and 
the decision to join had been made, against the indica- 
tions of the Flexner survey and the advice of a number 
of leading medical educators of the day, Dr. Jordan lost 
no time in starting to build up a strong medical faculty. 
The changes which were made in the then existing faculty 
are not to be interpreted as a reflection on the men who 
were already here, but as an indication of a change in 
orientation that was taking place not only on the West 
Coast but in medical schools throughout the country. 

Probably few, if any, of the teachers who helped pro- 
vide the professional foundations for men who would be- 
come eminent practitioners of medicine in San Francisco 
and the State of California regarded themselves as pri- 
marily anatomists. Rather, it is more likely that they all 
thought of themselves as medical men who, as a labor of 
love, gave of their time to present that aspect of their 
subject which can most nearly be approached from a 
strictly objective point of view. Those who are old enough 
to remember a few men of that era, either here or else- 
where, can not fail to retain fond memories of their foibles 
and their greatness, nor be unaware of our profound debt 
to the contributions which they made toward lifting med- 
ical education from what historians tell us was its lowest 
ebb in American history. It is a matter of regret that the 
writer of this note is not in a position to provide more 


complete and accurate accounts and give more personal 
glimpses of those early teachers of anatomy who helped 
pave the way for its further and more impressive develop- 

When President Jordan started out to strengthen the 
faculty in medicine, his very first appointment was Dr. 
Arthur William Meyer whom he brought here from the 
Department of Anatomy at Northwestern University Med- 
ical School. In commenting on this appointment Dr. Jor- 
dan remarked, "In bringing in Professor Meyer, one of the 
ablest teachers of anatomy in the United States, we set 
a standard which made it become necessary that other 
work should be equally well done." Dr. Jordan's repu- 
tation as a judge of teachers was well sustained by this 
appointment. Indeed, it is doubtful if a better man to meet 
the needs of the time and place could have been found 
anywhere in the country. Throughout the some thirty 
years during which he directed the affairs of the depart- 
ment, and even subsequent to his retirement, Dr. Meyer 
has been a zealous and uncompromising defender of thor- 
ough scholarship and whatever he deems best in med- 
ical education. At Johns Hopkins he had been a student 
and colleague of Mall, who probably trained more pro- 
fessors of anatomy and heads of department than any- 
one before or since. In Dr. Meyer, Mall found a follower 
responsive to many of his methods and ideals. But while 
Mall was notorious for giving few lectures and taking 
scant interest in any but exceptional students, Dr. Meyer 
did do a great deal of didactic teaching, but not of the 
conventional type, and he preferred to call them meet- 
ings of the class, conferences, or discussions. These meet- 
ings were highly stimulating and, to the class as a whole, 
almost equally terrifying. Few questions were answered 
directly by the professor, who usually preferred to "leave 
that one with you." Years later, one would sometimes 
learn from a visiting alumnus that one or more of these 
questions was still with him. It was a provocative method 
of teaching. 

Unlike Mall, whom some students claim to have seen 
only on the day when he announced that there would be 
no lectures in the course. Dr. Meyer was meticulous and 
exacting in his conduct of the laboratory work. With long 
forceps which had an uncanny affinity for poorly dis- 
played parts, he moved from table to table, like a clinician 
on ward rounds, bringing out essential points through 
searching, often disconcerting questions. Occasionally he 
would stop at one of the tables and view the whole dis- 
section with some such remark as, "That was a beautiful 
body." He had scant patience with careless work or 
fuzzy thinking. If, for example, in demonstrating his dis- 
section a flustered student happened to say, "... and 
this is your femoral nerve," Dr. Meyer would retort, "Not 
mine!" in a tone that seemed to imply that an unpardon- 
able sin had been committed. His visit to successive groups 
was always awaited with an element of apprehension; 
one currently well known physician actually fainted when 
he looked up and saw the Professor at his elbow. The 
method was good for those who could take it and very 
effective in bringing many a careless freshman out of the 
"happy hooliganism" which his professor so much de- 
plored. Few of them recognized at the time that in later 
years they would look back on these days with amuse- 
ment and something like nostalgia. That on the whole it 
was good medicine is shown by the number who were 
eager to do additional work under Dr. Meyer's direction. 

After Dr. Meyer, the next appointment to the depart- 
ment was Ruskin M. Lhamon who came from Washington 
University School of Medicine in St. Louis. He participated 

in teaching several of the courses, but did not stay with 
the department long. Following a brief interim after Dr. 
Lfiamon's resignation, Edgar Davidson Congdon of Cor- 
nell was appointed Assistant Professor in 1913, a posi- 
tion which he held until 1922, when he resigned to be- 
come Associate Professor at Peiping Union Medical Col- 
lege. Dr. Congdon, who had enjoyed excellent training 
in this country and abroad, was the first man without an 
M.D. degree to be appointed to the Department. (Profes- 
sor McFarland, with a Ph.D. from Wurzburg, was at the 
time still in the Department of Physiology.) In Dr. Cong- 
don's appointment, as in the policy of employing full 
time teachers which was instituted when Cooper was ab- 
sorbed, we see another sign of the changing times. For 
several years Drs. Meyer and Congdon, with the assist- 
ance of advanced students and technicians, handled the 
affairs of the Department alone. 

At this point it might be noted that from the first, 
histology had been considered at Stanford, as in Eng- 
land, to be a natural subdivision of physiology. Dr. Meyer, 
however, had consistently opposed this alignment and 
advocated the inclusion of histology in the Department of 
Anatomy. His goal was finally achieved in 1917, when 
suitable laboratories were fitted up and Professor Mc- 
Farland (Histology) and Associate Professor Stoltenberg 
(Neurology) were taken out of Physiology and trans- 
ferred to Anatomy. With this accomplishment, Anatomy 
at Stanford fell completely in line with its position in 
other leading medical schools. 

From here on, the number of persons participating in 
activities of the Department becomes too great to permit 
even casual mention of many who have contributed mate- 
rially to its activities and growth and have left enduring 
impression in the memories of those who were fortunate 
enough to work with them. It would be a pleasure, if space 
permitted, to record them and their achievements individ- 
ually. Suffice it to say that among local clinicians and 
among teachers in medical schools across the country are 
many who got part of their training, and, it is hoped, some 
of their inspiration while assisting in the Department of 
Anatomy at Stanford. Through the years there have also 
been a considerable number of visitors with short time 
appointments, or none at all, who have contributed to 
the research and esprit de corps of the department. Only 
three or four of them can be mentioned. 

During the year 1921 -'22, while Dr. Congdon was on 
leave. Dr. Robert Bennett Bean from the Medical Depart- 
ment at the University of Virginia, and Dr. Edward Allen 
Boyden from Harvard Medical School held temporary 
teaching appointments. Both of these men, with their 
keen and stimulating approach to phases of physical 
anthropology and visceral anatomy, made a deep im- 
pression on the students, some of whom probably re- 
member this as the year of the "mesomorph" and pan- 
creatic diverticula. 

Another visitor (1924) was Ernst Huber, who came 
from Zurich by way of Johns Hopkins. Dr. Huber's absorb- 
ing interest was in the facial nerve and muscles of ex- 
pression. There are subjects which ordinary classes ap- 
proach with no marked increase in enthusiasm, but the 
year Dr. Huber was here many of the class seemed to 
feel that the facial nerve was the most important sub- 
ject in anatomy, if not in the whole field of medicine. 
It was a striking illustration of what personal interest and 
enthusiasm can do for a man's teaching. In the course of 
his research Dr. Huber had one branch after another of 
his own facial nerve cut or cocainized until an increasing 
number of neuromata forced him to discontinue this 


phase of his work. Probably some students of that year 
remember his bout with poison oak. He had rubbed a lib- 
eral amount of foliage over his hands and face to make 
doubly sure that he was immune to this, as previous ex- 
perience had indicated he was to a related species in the 
east. The answer was unequivocal. Huber was enchanted 
by the beauties of a California spring and until his red 
beard or the material on which he was working attracted 
the attention of non-medical students he enjoyed taking 
a well preserved human head for study out under the oaks 
where "die Luft der Freiheit weht." As a happy culmina- 
tion of his stay at Stanford, Dr. Huber met a fellow 
countryman, Miss Yolonde Holdereque of the first year 
medical class, and they were married before the end of 
the quarter. 

Dr. Maurice Sheehan, an excellent young anatomist 
from Manchester, followed as another transient member 
of the Department, but one who did not share Dr. Huber's 
enthusiasm for California. Viewing the West Coast from 
a distance, he had apparently fancied that he might 
possibly live in San Jose and ride to and from the school 
on horseback. When he arrived, however, the Gold Rush 
days were over, few cowboys were drifting about and 
the glamor of the Old West had departed. There was little 
reason why he should remain in California when all his 
needs could be met at home. 

Thinking of the mid-twenties as a time when the past 
was beginning to blend into the present, we may con- 
tent ourselves with little more than a mere listing of 
the major permanent appointments since that time. The 
University Register for 1925-'26 lists Arthur William 
Meyer, Frank Mace McFarland and Charles Haskell Dan- 
forth (who had come into the Department from Wash- 
ington University Medical School in 1922) as Professors; 
Clara S. Stoltenberg as Associate Professor; Earl Theron 
Engle as Instructor; Herlwyn R. Green and Sophie B. de 

Aberle as Assistants in Instruction. Dr. Engle left soon after 
for Columbia University, where his recent death shocked 
his many friends throughout the country. Dr. Green, only 
casually in private practice, has for many years gener- 
ously made his services available whenever extra assist- 
ance has been needed in the dissecting room. Mrs. de 
Aberle, after acquiring Ph.D. and M.D. degrees from Stan- 
ford and Yale, has done extensive clinical and anthropo- 
logical work among the Indians of the Southwest and 
became the first woman to serve on the Board of the 
National Science Foundation. 

The following year (1926-'27) Dr. Philip E. Smith, 
coming from California, held the position of Associate 
Professor of Anatomy. It was during this year that he and 
Engle, working together, discovered simultaneously with 
Ascheim and Zondek what has come to be frequently 
referred to as the "Ascheim-Zondek" phenomenon, and 
demonstrated the possibility of inducing superovulation 
by implantation of pituitary tissue. At the end of the year 
Dr. Smith received a flattering offer from the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia University and, 
taking Dr. Engle with him, left to continue their impor- 
tant work in New York. Happily, Dr. Smith is again in 
this Department as Research Associate, and still actively 
engaged in Endocrine research. 

In 1930 Professor Stoltenberg, after having effectively 
taught neurology and anatomy of the sense organs for 
nearly thirty-five years, retired to become the first emeri- 
tus member of the Department. The same year Homer New- 
ton Violette from Yale and Joseph Eldridge Markee from 
Chicago entered the Department as instructors. Violette 
was a conscientious and hard-working morphologist, but 
withal a perfectionist who could never quite bring him- 
self to publish his results, however important. Moreover, 
he took no special pains to ingratiate himself with the 
students, and after five years and one promotion thought 

it best to resign. Dr. Markee, on the 
other hand, remained for thirteen 
years during which he rose to the rank 
of full professor and took a very active 
part in teaching and research, as well 
as in extra-curricular affairs. He left in 
1943 to become head of the Depart- 
ment of Anatomy at Duke University. 

After Professor Stoltenberg's retire- 
ment, Dr. Joseph Clarence Hinsey came 
from Northwestern University School of 
Medicine to take charge of the course 
in neurology. Hinsey, like Markee, with 
whom he quickly associated himself in 
neuro-endocrine research, presented 
his subject from a dynamic point of 
view and soon assumed an important 
position in the Department and in the 
School. He left in 1936 to become 
head of the Department of Physiology 
and later Physiology and Anatomy at 
Cornell University Medical School 
where he soon became dean, and in 
this and other capacities has become an influential 
figure in American medical education. 

Dr. McFarland retired in 1934 after forty years with 
the University, which he served conscientiously in many 
capacities, including membership on the committee 
that drew up the original plans for organization of 
the Medical School. As already mentioned, he was the 
leading authority on nudibranch mollusks of which he 
made many delicate dissections, and on which he had 
been working up to the day of his death. 

In 1932-'33, we not that William Walter Greulich 
was Assistant in Institution, and with him a year later 
Kendall Brooks Corbin appears in the same capacity. 
Dr. Greulich later became head of this Department and 
Dr. Corbin, after several years as instructor here and 
then as head of the Department of Anatomy at the Uni- 
versity of Tennessee, joined the Mayo Clinic as Professor 
of Clinical Neurology. 

Among those appointed to the rank of Instructor dur- 
ing the next few years were Hadley Kirkman (1936), 
Ernest Dean Gardner (1937), Robert Stuart Turner 
( 1 938 ) , David Lee Bassett ( 1 939 ) , Charles Henry Sawyer 
(1941), Robert Lewis Bacon (1943). Dr. Donald James 
Gray had been appointed Assistant Professor in 1939 
and Dr. Malcolm Ray Miller in 1949. The latter is now in 
the Department of Anatomy at the Medical School of the 
University of California; the former is in charge of gross 
anatomy here. Of those just mentioned, Drs. Bassett, 
Gray, Kirkman and Turner are now full professors in this 
department; Gardner is head of the Department of Ana- 
tomy at Wayne University Medical School; Bacon and 
Sawyer hold similar positions at Oregon and the Uni- 
versity of California at Los Angeles. Dr. Bassett, just com- 
pleting a sterescope atlas of human anatomy, leaves 
at the end of the year to take charge of gross anatomy 
at the University of Washington. Drs. Gray and Gardner 
are cooperating in a study of articulations in the fetus 
and in the preparation of a new text in anatomy. Dr. 
Kirkman, who has done significant work in oncology, has 
been spending the past two years at the Chester Beatty 
Research Institute in London. Dr. Turner, an especially 
stimulating teacher of neurology, is conducting studies of 
factors determining the pattern of branching blood ves- 
sels and those affecting the shapes of cells. The two most 


recent additions to the staff are Dr. Donald Stilwell, who 
is currently working on the finer ramifications of cutaneous 
nerves and on the blood supply of the spinal column, and 
Dr. F. Thomas Algard who, as an embryologist, is inter- 
ested in the culture of developing organs in vitro. 

It may be noted at this point that Mrs. Bacon is the 
former Irene Anderson who for several years did fine work 
in this department with the instruction of Physical Educa- 
tion and Physiotherapy majors, while Mrs. Turner (Mar- 
garet Linday) was doing comparable work as Instructor 
in Physiology. 

Dr. Meyer retired to become emeritus in 1938. He was 
succeeded by Charles Haskell Danforth, who continued 
as department executive until his own retirement in 1949. 
Danforth in turn was succeeded by William Walter Greu- 
lich, who had returned to the Department in 1944 after 
having served as Associate Professor of Anatomy and 
Physical Anthropology at Yale University School of Med- 
icine and Professor of the same subjects at Western Re- 
serve School of Medicine. He had been director of the 
Adolescent Study Unit at Yale and of the Brush Founda- 
tion in Cleveland, a position which he continued to hold 
for some years after coming to Stanford. Among his nu- 
merous interests, problems of growth and development in 
children have taken him to many places in recent years: 
our own Southwest, Japan, Pacific Islands, Australia, New 
Zealand and Africa. From 1 952 to 1 954 he was Scientific 
Advisor to the U. S. High Commissioner in Germany. With 
the assistance of Miss Idell Pyle, he has just completed 
a revision of his valuable "Radiographic Atlas of Skeletal 
Development of the Hand and Wrist." 

During almost the entire period under review most 
medical schools in the country have suffered from chronic 
shortage of dissecting room material. In this respect Stan- 
ford has been more fortunate than some because of a 
California law in the formulation of which Dr. Meyer was 
an active participant. The law provides that unclaimed 
bodies shall become the responsibility of the State Board 
of Health, which has the power to assign them as needed 
to recognized medical schools. If consistently enforced, 
the provisions of the law might have proved fully ade- 
quate, but there were some uncertainties and ambiguities 
which came to the fore when eye banks began to be 

established and their legality questioned. Largely 
through the effort of Dean Chandler and others, in- 
cluding members of this department, new laws were 
finally secured which give the invidual authority to 
will his eyes or, if he chooses, his whole body to an 
appropriate institution. The law has met with a gen- 
erally favorable reception and the number of 
bodies willed to this department since its passage 
has become considerable. One citizen of a nearby 
community even proposed the formulation of a club, 
each member of which would be pledged to will his 
body to Stanford. Dr. Gray has shown great skill in 
handling such matters, involving as they do delicate 
and unusual public relations. He also meets suc- 
cessfully the slow but steady stream of (possibly 
sometimes honest) would-be speculators who hope 
to sell their bodies to the school and collect in 

There is no room in this brief note for discussion 
of research activities of the Department, nor more 
than a passing reference to its teaching. A survey of 
an entire file of the American Journal of Anatomy 
or of the Anatomical Record would show a close 
parallelism through the years between what was 
going on in the rest of the country and what was 
being done at Stanford. The field covered has been 
a wide one, and some of the material presented at 
meetings or in the journals might appear to the un- 
initiated as scarcely anatomy at all. But recalling 
that "anatomy is what anatomists work at," this is 
not necessarily an adverse criticism. 

The teaching of a department is largely a reflec- 
tion of the interests of its personnel, and those in 
this department have usually been sufficiently diver- 
sified to meet the needs of students in medicine, 
nursing and physical education as well as those of 
a number of biology majors with special problems 
of their own. Commonly, our teaching for medical 
students is supplemented by the voluntary assistance 
of radiologists, pathologists, surgeons, and internists, 
whose services are of a very real value so long as no one 
forgets that it is anatomy and not this or that specialty 
with which the Department is concerned. This is an area 
where great skill is needed on the part of instructors, for 
the eager student is always trying to get the cart before 
the horse, or even to forget the horse. Some have sug- 
gested occasionally that miracle drugs and antibiotics 
are beginning to render the teaching of anatomy super- 
fluous. But perhaps we should not forget that, some of 
the temporarily frustrated pathogens may yet stage a 
comeback, and if medicine in the future is to deal with 
real human beings instead of disembodied functions 
there will probably be a place for anatomy till the end 
of time. 

One other item should be mentioned in reference to 
the position of Anatomy in the University. While anatom- 
ists themselves have had few misgivings as to their place 
of function, the University authorities might seem to have 
experienced some difficulty in deciding just what to do 
with them. From the time Stanford took over the medical 
school until 1925, anatomy was listed in the President's 
Report and elsewhere as an independent department 
coordinate in rank with other departments in the Uni- 
versity. In the mid-twenties, however, when for adminis- 
trative purposes departments were being brought to- 
gether into schools, Anatomy, Physiology, Bacteriology 
and Experimental Pathology, as well as the commonly 

recognized biological subjects, were brought together to 
form a School of Biology, later called the School of Bio- 
logical Sciences. For about twenty years anatomy was 
listed in this school, and members of the Department 
enjoyed a kind of dual citizenship, with voting privileges 
in both the School of Biological Sciences and in the School 
of Medicine. During this period, the staff was listed under 
both schools but description of courses and similar mate- 
rial was always published under the School of Biological 
Sciences with only a cross reference under the School of 
Medicine. Bacteriology and Physiology were similarly 
treated. It was not until 1945 that the President in his 
annual report listed anatomy as exclusively a medical 
school department no longer in the School of Biological 
Sciences. It has been so listed from that time on. But as 
the rest of the School of Medicine moves down to the 
campus, where Anatomy and some of its sister depart- 
ments have been waiting these many years, there will be 
opportunity for a degree of effective collaboration be- 
tween its various departments and between it and the 
rest of the University which was not previously possible, 
and which, if wisely utilized, will operate to their mutual 

Whatever the future might hold for it, the School of 
Medicine enters its new century with problems which, for 
Anatomy at least, are no less challenging than were those 
of a hundred years ago. 







Dr. Loring received his AB degree from Pomona in 1929, 
his masters and doctorate from Illinois in 1930 and 1934 
in Biochemistry. Before coming to Stanford he was an in- 
structor in Biochemistry at George Washington University 
and a Fellow at the Rockefeller Institute at Princeton. He 
came to Stanford in 1939 but did further work as a Fellow 
at the Rockefeller Foundation in 1948 and taught at the 
University of Washington as the Walker-Ames Professor of 
Biochemistry in 1952 and at UC in the summer of 1953 as 
Professor of Biochemistry. He is currently Professor of Bio- 
chemistry in the Department of Chemistry. 


The first course in biochemistry, then called physiological chemistry, was started in the Department of Chemistry in 
1902 by Robert Eccles Swain. Dr. Swain had received his Doctor of Philosophy degree in this subject a few years before 
at Yale University in the Sheffield Scientific School, the first school organized in the United States to provide graduate 
training and to grant the Doctor of Philosophy degree in the new field of biochemistry. Professor Swain continued offer- 
ing courses in biochemistry during the next several years, and when Cooper Medical College affiliated with Stanford 
University in 1908, there was available in the Department of Chemistry an experienced and successful teacher of bio- 
chemistry. Responsibility for instruction of the new medical students in biochemistry was assumed by the Department of 
Chemistry and placed in Professor Swain's hands. One might wonder why a separate Department of Biochemistry in the 
School of Medicine was not created at that time. The prevalent philosophy, however, to quote from the writings of Ray 
Lyman Wilbur after he had become President of Stanford University was that "... these basic sciences (e.g. biochem- 
istry) need to be set free from the limited claims of the medical curriculum. The men in them need to go into their respec- 
tive fields in the broadest possible way, using all related information in the hope that advances may be made which can 

later be brought into medicine." It seems probable, there- 
fore, that the early objective of the biochemical educa- 
tion of the medical student at Stanford was to provide an 
understanding of biological phenomena in basic chem- 
ical terms. Under the administration of the Department of 
Chemistry this philosophy has been maintained up to the 
present year. It should be realized, however, considering 
the growth and importance of the subject over the years, 
that teaching and research in biochemistry have been per- 
formed during only a few years with a maximum staff of 
only three full-time members and over many of the later 
years with a full-time staff of only one. 

Professor Swain taught both the main lecture and lab- 
oratory courses as well as graduate courses in biochem- 
istry for many years. After he became Executive Head of 
the Department of Chemistry in 1917, he gradually re- 
linquished his biochemistry teaching duties at first to 
Norris W. Rakestraw, 1918 to 1920, and *in 1920 to 
Florian Cajori who was appointed Instructor in Physiolog- 
ical Chemistry. Dr. Cajori served in this capacity until 
1922, and in 1925-26 Meyer Bodansky was appointed 
Acting Assistant Professor of Biochemistry. 

In 1926 James Murray Luck joined the staff of the 
Department of Chemistry as Assistant Professor of Bio- 
chemistry. Professor Luck continued the tradition begun 
by Professor Swain of providing biochemical training for 
the medical students, for graduate students in chemistry 
and biochemistry, and, in fact, for all Stanford students 

who wished to learn about this subject. At first there were 
only moderate numbers of students in the main courses, 
e.g. 49 for the Autumn quarter of 1928-29, but the num- 
ber soon increased and in the year 1935-36 over one 
hundred students were registered for the first course. It is 
of interest that it was in these early years of Professor 
Luck's association with Stanford that an annual review of 
biochemistry was started, for in 1929-30 Professor Luck 
first offered an advanced course under the title "A Re- 
view of Recent Contributions to Biochemistry." In 1932 
the Annual Review of Biochemistry, Ltd., was organized 
as a non-profit corporation in the State of California by 
J. M. Luck, C. L. Alsberg, D. R. Hoagland and C. L. A. 
Schmidt with Dr. Luck as Editor. In 1938 the corporation 
was reorganized as Annual Reviews, Inc. and the pub- 
lication of reviews in Physiology was begun. This was fol- 
lowed over the years with the Annual Review of Micro- 
biology in 1947, and with annual reviews of Plant Physi- 
ology, Psychology, Medicine, and Physcial Chemistry in 

In 1933-35 Alton C. Kurtz assisted Professor Luck in 
the laboratory as Acting Instructor in Biochemistry and 
during the period from 1935 to 1939 William C. Gordon 
served similarly as Instructor in Biochemistry. In 1939, a 
year before Professor Swain became Emeritus, Hubert 
Scott Loring was appointed Assistant Professor of Bio- 
chemistry and provided laboratory instruction in the main 
biochemistry courses for both the medical and non-med- 


ical students during the subsequent seven years. In 1946 
Edward L. Duggan was appointed Instructor in Biochem- 
istry and the teaching was reorganized with all three 
staff members participating in the main lecture and lab- 
oratory courses as well as providing graduate and post- 
graduate training in biochemistry annually for an average 
of 1 to 25 students and associates. E. L. Duggan was 
succeeded by A. Clark Griffin first as Instructor, and later 
as Assistant and Associate Professor of Biochemistry. 
Professor Griffin, as did the other permanent staff mem- 
bers before him, carried the main responsibility for lab- 
oratory teaching until 1954 when he left the Department 
of Chemistry to assume the post of Chairman of the Bio- 
chemistry group at the M. D. Anderson Hospital and Can- 
cer Institute in Houston, Texas. He was succeeded on an 
acting basis by Assistant Professor James Mc. T. Ploeser 
(1954-55), who was followed by Assistant Professor 
Lawrence O. Pilgeram (1955-57), and he in turn by 
Instructor Gordon L. Nordby (Autumn and Winter, 1957- 
58), and Acting Instructors Saad A. Al-Rawi, Autumn 

1958 and William C. Gillchriest, Winter 1959. Professor 
Loring taught the main lecture courses from 1948 until 

1959 and was responsible as well in 1958-59, with the 
assistance of the individuals mentioned, for the laboratory 
courses taken by the medical students. Since 1954 Pro- 
fessor Luck has taught the laboratory course taken by 
the non-medical students. 

While instruction of medical and non-medical students 
in fundamental biochemistry has been the main teaching 
function (in terms of numbers) performed by the bio- 
chemistry group, an important service to the profession 
and to the University has been the training of graduate 
students in biochemistry. Thus graduate 
seminars were conducted each quarter 
and advanced and graduate courses 
were offered at various times under the 
following titles: Biochemical Prepara- 
tions (Luck, Loring); Food Chemistry 

( Boyer) ; Biochemistry of Vitamins and 
Hormones (Loring); Nutrition Luck); 
Amino Acids and Proteins (Luck, 
Loring); Amino Acids and Peptides 

(Luck); Proteins (Luck); Biochemistry 
of Cancer (Griffin); Nucleoproteins 
and Nucleic Acids (Loring); and Bio- 
chemistry of the Water Soluble Vita- 
mins (Loring). Each staff member has 
directed the research of several grad- 
uate students and associates each 
quarter, and over the twenty year 
period during which the writer has 
been associated with Stanford Univ- 
ersity, approximately 30 candidates 
received the Master of Science degree 
and about an equal number the Doc- 
tor of Philosophy degree in Chemistry 

(with majors in biochemistry). Many 
such Stanford graduates now hold im- 
portant teaching and research posi- 
tions throughout the United States. 
The names, dates when the Ph.D. was 
awarded, present titles and affiliations 
of those who have been admitted to 
membership in the American Society of 
Biological Chemists are as follows: 
Norris W. Rakestraw, '21, Professor of 
Chemistry, University of California, 
Scripps Institute of Oceanography; 

Alton C. Kurtz, '35. Professor of Biochemistry, University 
of Oklahoma Medical School; Frederick H. Carpenter, '44, 
Associate Professor of Biochemistry, University of Cali- 
fornia, Berkeley; John G. Pierce, '44, Associate Professor 
of Biochemistry, University of California at Los Angeles; 
Carlton E. Schwerdt. '46, Associate Professor of Medical 
Microbiology, Stanford University; Paul M. Roll, '47, 
Associate Professor of Biochemistry, Marquette University 
School of Medicine; James L. Fairley, '50, Associate Pro- 
fessor of Chemistry, Michigan State University; Elizabeth 
P. Anderson, '51, Chemist, National Cancer Institute; Don 
W. Kupke, '53, Assistant Professor of Biochemistry, Univ- 
ersity of Virginia School of Medicine. 

The research activities of the biochemistry staff have 
been well supported financially by agencies outside the 
University. These include the Rockefeller Foundation, the 
National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, the Nutrition 
Foundation, the Associated Women of the American Farm 
Bureau Federation, the American Cancer Society, and the 
United States Public Health Service. Over the past twenty 
years a total of several hundred thousand dollars was 
provided in support of the research conducted in bio- 

Professor Swain, still in good health and vigor at 85 
years of age, has continued his interest in chemistry, and 
more particularly since his retirement in air pollution con- 
trol. He was appointed to the Hearing Board of the Bay 
Area Air Pollution Control District in 1957 and has served 
on this board since that time. In June 1959 because af 
important contributions to the subject he was awarded 
the annual Robert Chambers National Award for out- 
standing and distinguished work in Air Pollution Control. 


• '. ' -" 

Professor Luck was made a Fellow of the General Edu- 
cation Board of the Rockefeller Foundation for work in 
England and Denmark in 1935. He has served on many 
national and international committees such as the Panel 
on Proteins of the Committee on Growth of the National 
Research Council, 1 945 to 1 948 and the Fellowship Board 
in 1947. He was the American delegate to the Royal 
Society Conference for Scientific Information in 1948. He 
served as the Secretary of the Biochemistry Section of the 
International Union on Pure and Applied Chemistry from 
1951 to 1953. In 1954 he was elected President-Elect 
and in 1955 President of the American Society of Bio- 
logical Chemists. He has served as Editor of Annual 
Review of Biochemistry since it was founded in 1932 and 
since 1938 as Managing Editor of Annual Reviews, Inc. 

Professor Luck has been interested in the general field 
of protein chemistry and more particularly in recent years 
in the chemistry of the proteins of the cell nucleus. He has 
published over a hundred papers dealing with physical 
methods of protein characterization, including ultracentri- 
fugation, electrophoresis, and end group studies as well 
as with many other subjects of biochemical interest. 

Professor Loring was awarded a special Rockefeller 

Foundation fellowship for travel and work in Europe in 
1948. He was made Walker-Ames Professor of Biochem- 
istry at the University of Washington in 1952 and was 
Visiting Professor of Biochemistry at the Virus Laboratory, 
University of California, during the First Summer Session 
in 1953. During the period from 1949 to 1956 he served 
on the Protein and General Biochemistry Panels of the 
Committee on Growth of the National Research Council. 
He was Associate Editor of the Annual Review of Bio- 
chemistry for the ten-year period from 1 946 to 1 955 and 
served as a member of the Editorial Board of the Journal 
of Biological Chemistry from 1950 to 1955. 

Professor Loring continued his interest in viruses and 
nucleic acids after coming to Stanford and has published 
some seventy-five papers dealing with various aspects of 
these and related subjects. A recent discovery of consid- 
erable probable importance was that traces of iron, cop- 
per, magnesium and calcium occur in purified tobacco 
mosaic virus probably as integral components. It appears 
that these elements may play a unique role in binding 
smaller nucleate and protein subunits into the large 
nucleoprotein particles characteristic of viruses in general. 



: I, 


Dr. Rytand received his BA degree from Stanford University 
in 1929. He attended Stanford Medical School and was 
awarded the M.D. degree in 1933. He continued his train- 
ing at Stanford as a medical resident in 1935 and 1936 
and has remained on the teaching staff to the present. 
He was made a Professor of Medicine in 1954 and has 
served in the capacity of Executive of the Department of 
Medicine since 1956. Always an inspiration to students in 
medicine, Dr. Raymond was recently appointed the Arthur L. 
Bloomfield Professor of Medicine. 


By the time "The Professor" came to Stanford in 1926, the Department of Medicine had been established by Ray 
Lyman Wilbur and Albion Walter Hewlett along broad lines common a generation ago. Pediatrics, Neuropsychiatry and 
Radiology had not yet become separate Departments, and Thomas Addis, George Barnett, Ernest Dickson, Henry Mehr- 
tens, Harold Faber and W. Edward Chamberlain were Professors of Medicine. 

Addis was well started with his studies of Bright's disease in man and of the kidneys in animals. As the more mathe- 
matically minded George Barnett pointed out to him, the Addis "urea ratio" represented that amount of blood freed of 
urea per unit of time, and was thus the first of the modern renal clearances. A succession of colleagues and assistants, 
initiated by Jean Oliver, Douglas Drury and Eaton MacKay, came and went while Mrs. Addis and a few others were 
permanent fixtures in the laboratory. Afternoon tea was a regular and remarkable hour, in which the range of topics 
discussed by Addis, Arthur Bloomfield and William Dock was seemingly limitless. 

Barnett became Chief of Service at the County, a post he held for many years. He came to know well hundreds of 
students during his long assignment on the Admissions Committee, and no student ever forgot his reading from Zadig 

during that exciting first week as a sophomore in the City. 
Barnett was succeeded by J. K. Lewis, who earlier had 
been in charge of the EKG lab. There he had made incred- 
ibly thin and tough membranes for use in recording heart 
sounds, and with Dock utilized these in the study of the 
genesis of the first sound and gallops. As he himself put 
it, Dock was a "guest worker" not only in this but in 
many other laboratories on Clay Street. Lewis, Addis, 
Holman and Hanzlik were among his hosts as he studied 
heart sounds, hypertension, blood flow, digitalis, specific 
dynamic action, etc. Emphasis was placed on abnormal 
physiology, a field which in its early development owed 
much to Hewlett and which has remained one o"f the 
Department's strong points. 

Men of the current generation also have national and 
even international reputations. In succeeding Addis, Luet- 
scher has become established as an expert in aldosterone, 
the adrenal and the nephrotic syndrome. Rantz, follow- 
ing the valley fever work of Dickson, contributed heavily 
to the cause and prevention of rheumatic fever. Other 
areas of research by department members include cyano- 
sis, bacterial endocarditis, peptic ulcer, chronic hepatitis, 
latent syphilis, hemophilia, thrombocytopenia, hemolytic 
anemia, multiple sclerosis, alcohol, muscular dystrophies, 
edema, discoid and systemic lupus, hypersensitivity, leu- 
koagglutinins, the work of breathing, cardiac arrhythmias, 

malignant melanoma, thyrotropic hormone, hypoglycemic 
agents, etc. 

In great contrast to certain other medical schools, the 
professors here have maintained a busy teaching sched- 
ule. Dr. Bloomfield made ward rounds four times weekly 
with students and house staff in addition to Friday's fab- 
ulous Staff Rounds on the ward, gave each Tuesday's 
Set Clinic, attended X-ray Conference on Monday and 
regularly served as the clinician at CPC. In addition, he 
personally aspirated stomachs while studying gastric 
secretion and anacidity, with Polland published a mono- 
graph on the latter, served on various committees and 
found time for consultations while remaining a scholar. 
It is doubtful that many others have equaled this or will 
ever do so. 

The wards were especially active in the days before 
insurance became so widespread, and sometimes a clin- 
ical clerk was assigned patients in medicine, pediatrics 
and psychiatry on one day. Somehow, he saw them all. 
A greater proportion of patients were San Franciscans 
then than now, were followed longer and were more 
intimately a part of the Department. One spent his vaca- 
tions on the men's ward, reading Westerns while Doctor 
Bloomfield removed his stomach juice. It was he who 
inquired about Friday's "grand round-up"; subsequently 
"Grand Rounds" gradually supplanted "Staff Rounds." 


Above, left to right: Eugene M. Farber, Clinical Professor [Derma- 
tology) ; H. Corwin Hinshaw, Clinical Professor (Diseases of the 
Chest) ; Henry W. Newman, Professor (Neurology) ; William H. North- 
way, Professor (Physical Medicine). Below: John K. Lewis, Professor; 
John A. Luetscher, Jr., Professor. 

Under either name, the exercise continued on the ward 
and the audience grew until, finally, it was moved to 
Lane Hall and the wards themselves were declared un- 
safe (structurally speaking ) for patients. 

Nearly omniscient otherwise, the house staff never 
found it possible to account for the disappearance of a 
demonstration specimen of hemorrhagic chylous fluid 
from a bedside table between patients in the line dur- 
ing rounds; some believed it became confused with 
tomato juice. Nor could anyone ever account for the 
appearance of a caricature of a face in gentian violet 
on an abdominal wall following paracentesis but before 

Above, left to right: Charles W. Barnett, Professor; George B. Robson, 
Clinical Professor; Dwight L. Wilbur, Clinical Professor; William P. 
Creger, Associate Professor. Below: Herbert N. Hultgren, Associate 
Professor; William W. Hofmann, Assistant Professor. 

Doctor Bloomfield's rounds. Until about twenty years 
ago, the staff was composed almost entirely of Stan- 
ford graduates. Now it is recruited from many schools 
and places; two years ago, notices went to prospective 
residents in Baltimore, Oxford, Heidelberg, Greenland 
and Texas. As one measure of success, at least fourteen 
interns or residents have become full professors. With 
growth of the house staff, research fellows began to 
appear after the last war and now number seven. 

Departmental members have been selected as Markle 
Scholars in Medical Science, and have been elected as 
presidents of the American Society for Clinical Investiga- 
tion, American College of Physicians, 
Western Society for Clinical Research, 
California Academy of Medicine, 
Western Association of Physicians, 
San Francisco Medical Society, etc. 
Some of these so honored are volun- 
tary faculty members. For years, the 
small core of full-time staff has been 
aided immeasurably by many volun- 
tary faculty, research associates and 
assistants, and postdoctoral fellows 
who really should be mentioned in- 
dividually and with gratitude but 
whose names alone fill two pages in 
the annual School of Medicine 

The active full-time staff includes 
the following: Professors C. W. Bar- 
nett, J. K. Lewis, J. A. Luetscher, Jr., 
H. W. Newman, W. H. Northway, L. 
A. Rantz and D. A. Rytand; Associate 
Professors W. P. Creger, H. N. Hult- 
gren and J. P. Kriss; Assistant Profes- 
sors F. L. Eldridge, W. W. Hofmann 
"J and B. B. Johnson; Instructors R. M. 

■■'M Kivel and L. P. White. 

Bulging at the seams on Clay Street, 
JH we recognize that numerical growth 

and improved quality are not always 
synonymous. The Department has 
had many excellent days in the past 
and hopes to do even better on the 
Stanford campus. 






Dr. Raffei did his early work at the Johns Hopkins Univ- 
ersity where he received his AB degree in 1930 and his 
ScD degree in 1933. Following this he received the MD 
degree from Stanford University in 1943. He has been a 
member of the Department of Medical Microbiology since 
1935 and is well known for his research work on the 
tubercle bacillus and in the field of immunology where he 
has published a textbook. He is currently Executive Pro- 
fessor of Medical Microbiology. 


During the closing quarter of the last century bacteriology began to develop as a* science, especially in France and 
Germany, and before long some of the younger men of this country brought back from their studies there the beginnings 
of courses in our own medical schools. Perhaps the first to do this was Dr. William H. Welch who introduced the then 
extant knowledge of infectious agents into the young Johns Hopkins Medical School in Baltimore in the early 1890's. 
Stanford was not far behind in this; there was as yet no medical school in the University as such, but in 1 897 the first 
elementary course of which there is record was given by Professor George J. Pierce, a botanist, and at about the same 
time courses in hygiene were instituted by Dr. William F. Snow. 

In 1 908 the Cooper Medical College became part of the University, and forthwith a course in bacteriology for med- 
ical students was instituted by Professor Robert E. Swain of the Department of Chemistry. Dr. Swain was for many years 
head of the Department of Chemistry, for several years acting president of the University, and he continues to live here 
on the campus and to take an interest in University affairs. 

Three years later, in 191 1, a Division of Bacteriology was established with Dr. Hans Zinsser as its head. He came 

here from Columbia, and he instituted courses in general 
as well as medical bacteriology, in immunology, and in 
the relation of bacteriology to public health. At the same 
time a course in applied bacteriology was started in the 
Division of Pathology by Dr. Ernest C. Dickson who was 
in subsequent years to contribute a great deal to our 
understanding of Valley Fever. 

Dr. Zinsser's stay here was only for something over two 
years, but his recollections of this phase of his career as 
recalled almost thirty years later in his autobiographical 
"As I Remember Him" were happy ones, and his recount- 
ing of his initial interview with Dr. David Starr Jordan in 
a small hotel room in New York is worth retelling. Dur- 
ing this talk Dr. Jordan was getting dressed and struggling 
to get his arms and head through a dicky while describing 
the beauties of the Stanford campus. As Zinsser tells it, 
"I think I won his heart by tugging down on the shirttail, 
meanwhile holding up the trousers. It may well be that I 
owed my first professorship to the holding up of a presi- 
dent's pants more than to my scientific achievements — 
which, if not too dignified a manner of getting a job, is 
still far less ignominious than many things that have been 
done in similar regions of presidential anatomy for worse 
positions." He came as assistant professor of bacteriology 
under the Division of Pathology and Bacteriology, but by 
1912 he was made full professor. During this time many 

of the ruins of the 1906 earthquake were still underfoot, 
and Zinsser's department was in a portion of the re- 
cently resuscitated anatomy building, contiguous to some 
of the still warped and jagged remains. 

In 1913 Zinsser left to become head of the department 
at his alma mater, the Columbia School of Medicine, and 
was replaced by Dr. William H. Manwaring who had 
graduated with the first class at the Johns Hopkins Med- 
ical School and had then worked at the Rockefeller Insti- 
tute. Dr. Manwaring was assisted in instruction by Drs. 
Harry J. Sears, Marcus C. Terry (pathologist at the local 
veterans hospital), and John T. Connell. Dr. Manwaring 
served in this capacity until 1920, and during this period 
instituted additional courses in applied bacteriology, bac- 
teriological chemistry, and pathology. The medical classes 
were small at this time, numbering less than twenty stu- 
dents, and it was possible to teach pathology on an ex- 
perimental basis, the students creating various lesions for 
the study of their development and sequelae. Dr. Man- 
waring was himself widely recognized as an experimen- 
talist in immunology, particularly in the field of hyper- 
sensitivity and the relationship of various organs to its 

In 1920 Dr. Edwin W. Schultz was made head of the 
department. He instituted advanced graduate study, the 
M.A. and Ph.D. degrees being offered. Instructional 


Left to right: Charles E. Clifton, Professor; Robert J. Roantree, Assistant 

assistants in the 1920's included Drs. John E. Blair, Claus 
W. Jungeblut, Albert P. Krueger, and Paul J. Beard, the 
latter associated also with the Department of Civil Engineer- 
ing and concerned with a course in sanitary bacteriology. 
Dr. Beard served in this capacity until his death in 1944. 
Drs. Charles E. Clifton and Earl E. Dewey also became in- 
structors, in 1929; the former remains on the staff at the 
present time. During Dr. Schultz's years of leadership, be- 
tween 1920 and his retirement in 1953, the present housing 
of the department was greatly developed through the ex- 
tension of research laboratories and animal quarters into 
the basement, and an auditorium endowed by Mr. E. B. 
Noble was added to the building. Dr. Schultz introduced a 
course in viruses, and he devoted a number of years to 
studies of poliomyelitis. In the 1930's he was one of the 
leaders in this country in the investigation of pathways of 
infection and mechanisms of immunity in poliomyelitis, and 
in efforts to block neural routes of the virus to the central 
nervous system by means of chemical astringent agents. 
Since his retirement from the University, Dr. Schultz has been 

chairman of a commission charged with the develop- 
ment of the medical school at the University of Indo- 
nesia, in Djakarta. This activity is partly under the 
auspices of the University of California, and constitutes 
one of our country's significant efforts to provide edu- 
cational assistance abroad. 

In 1 936 the writer joined the staff as instructor, and 
since 1953 has been executive head of the depart- 
ment. The general area of instruction has remained the 
same as in the past, but the methods have been evolv- 
ing in the past several years toward a small group- 
conference level. Research interests of the department 
at this time include various aspects of immunology and 
hypersensitivity, viruses, and bacterial metabolism. 
Several books have come out of the department in the 
past few years; two by Dr. Clifton concerned with gen- 
eral bacteriology and bacterial physiology, and one 
by the writer on immunity. 

The present staff consists of Drs. Raffel, Clifton, and 
Cutting, professors; Dr. Carlton E. Schwerdt, associate 
professor; Dr. Robert J. Roantree, assistant professor; 
and Mrs. Helen S. Thayer, instructor. The clinical staff 
includes Dr. Emmett J. Durrum, associate clinical pro- 
fessor, and Dr. Edwin C. Custer, assistant clinical 

During the years since 1920, something over thirty 
Ph.D. degrees have been awarded by the department, 
and a larger number of master's degrees. In addition 
to offering the major course for the. medical students 
and other courses for graduate students, the depart- 
ment has for many years, with some remissions, also 
offered work for undergraduate majors, many of whom 
have later gone into medicine or concentrated on com- 
pleting work for their medical technological training. 

With the coming of the clinical departments to the 
campus, with the addition of new departments with 
related interests, and with a proposed expansion of 
our own pre- and postdoctoral fellowship program and 
the opportunity to offer elective courses to medical 
students, we are anticipating entering into a most 
stimulating era in teaching and research. 




Dr. Fluhmann received his BA .degree from the University of 
Bishops College in 1917. He attended McGill Medical 
School and was awarded the MD degree in 1922. He was 
a junior intern at the Montreal General Hospital in 1922- 
23 and in 1923-24 served as a senior intern in the Depart- 
ment of Gynecology. He completed his residency training 
in obstetrics and gynecology at Johns Hopkins Hospital 
during 1924-25. He has been on the clinical staff at Stan- 
ford since 1 926, and is presently Clinical Professor of 
Obstetrics and Gynecology. 


In 1 858 a few "medical gentlemen" from San Francisco "earnest in their desire for mutual improvement; anxious to 
increase their store of knowledge; and, like the true scientist the world over, ever willing, even eager, to impart their 
knowledge to others," obtained a charter from the University of the Pacific and founded the organization which eventu- 
ally became Cooper Medical College. The announcement for the session of 1859 stated in regard to the teaching of 
obstetrics that "In this course there will be no lack of effort to bring everything pertaining to this department as clearly 
and practically before the mind of the student as the present state of the science will admit. The lectures will be amply 
illustrated by colored drawings, many of which have been taken from nature, and also by wet preparations. The dif- 
ferent operations in obstetrics will be performed upon a manikin, and the student will be instructed and practiced in the 
use of obstetrical instruments." 

The Professor of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children and Physiology was Dr. R. Beverly Cole, who was 
truly a medical pioneer in the early days of San Francisco. In 1 864 the young institution saw fit to suspend its teaching 
but when in 1 871 it was reorganized the Professor of Obstetrics and Diseases of Children was Dr. Clinton Cushing. The 

following year further changes were made and Dr. Henry 
Gibbons, Jr., who had graduated in 1863, became Dean 
as well as Professor of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women 
and Children, a post- which he filled until 1912. A clear- 
cut separation of the two divisions of Obstetrics and 
Gynecology never occurred, but in 1881 a "special pro- 
fessorship" of Gynecology was instituted, and Dr. Clinton 
Cushing was given the chair. In 1899 the teaching as- 
signed to this position was taken over by Dr. George B. 
Somers, first as lecturer and later as professor, while Dr. 
Cushing became Emeritus in 1901. 

In November 1 908 Cooper Medical College transferred 
its allegiance to Stanford, and in 1912 Dr. Alfred Baker 
Spalding assumed control as Professor of Obstetrics and 
Gynecology, and his term of service saw the develop- 
ment of a well-organized department devoted to the care 
of patients, teaching, and research. Under Dr. Spalding 
served three successive Associate Professors who came to 
Stanford from other shcools, namely Henry A. Stephen- 
son, Ludwig A. Emge, and C. Frederic Fluhmann, but soon 

Stanford graduates, notably Karl L Schaupp Sr., Albert 
V. Pettif, Hans von Geldern, Gertrude F. Jones, Paul E. 
Hoffman, Donald A. Dallas, Dorothy L. Morse, and Ches- 
ter L. Cooley, remained associated with the Department 
and contributed to its activities. At this time Female 
Urology was a departmental division under William E. 
Stevens, who is now Associate Clinical Professor Emeritus. 

Because of ill-health. Dr. Spalding was forced to re- 
tire prematurely in 1 933 and Dr. Emge served as Executive 
from this time until 1 947. He did much to enhance the de- 
partment's activities and a new generation of teachers, 
also mostly Stanford graduates, joined the staff and 
among these were Harry A. Somerfield, Seymour F. Smith, 
Frederick J. Northway, Frank Norris, W. Dayton Clark, 
Harold M. Lyons, Karl Schaupp Jr., Albert E. Long, and 
John B. Schaupp. Since 1947 the Department has prog- 
ressed under the able leadership of Dr. Charles E. 

Since its earliest days, the Department has been known 
for its sound clinical teaching both at the Lane and at the 


Left to right: Charles E. McLennan, Professor and Executive; Robert W. 
Noyes, Associate Professor: Eugene C. Sandberg, Assistant Professor; 
Ludwig A. Emge, Clinical Professor Emeritus. 

San Francisco Hospital. It should be mentioned, however, 
that it was also one of the first in this country to expand 
its laboratory facilities and provide the means for animal 
experimentation. The tissue laboratory was organized by 
Dr. Spalding so that the staff members always have been 
closely interested in gynecologic pathology. In the thirties 
a rat colony was developed, and L. A. Emge conducted a 
long program of research on transplantable rat tumors 

while C. F. Fluhmann did some basic studies on ovarian 
and gonadotropic hormones. Dr. Robert W. Noyes is now 
continuing an extensive program of animal experimenta- 

The exigencies of life will not allow the San Francisco 
obstetricians and gynecologists to take a very active part 
in the new school in Palo Alto, but with happy memories 
of a full and successful past all send heartfelt wishes for 
an even greater second century. 



Dr. Cox is a Professor of Pathology and Executive of the 
Department of Pathology. He began his higher education 
at Stanford and received his AB in 1927. He continued at 
Stanford Medical School and was awarded his MD in 1931. 
From then until the present he has been associated with the 
Stanford Medical faculty, taking leaves in 1935-36 to do 
special work in Pathology at the University of Frieberg at 
its Pathological Institute and again in 1957-58 to spend a 
year at Harvard as a Research Fellow in Chemistry. 


Pathology as we know it today is not a very old subject. Its age can be fixed at about 100 years, the same as that 
of our Medical School. It was in 1858 that Rudolph Virchow published his Cellular Pathology, a synthesis of a new 
approach to the study of disease — the approach that has dominated pathology through the last century. Our Depart- 
ment of Pathology, therefore, has reflected the development of modern pathology from its inception. 

In the original precursor of Stanford Medical School, associated with the University of the Pacific, pathology was 
not a separate department. The first professor was a Dr. J. Morison who held the title of Professor of the Principles and 
Practice of Medicine and Pathology. During the early years others also taught pathology while conducting clinical prac- 
tices. It was not until 1 898 that Dr. William Ophuls became the first full-time specialist to head the Department of Path- 
ology. Dr. Ophuls was trained in Germany under Johannes Orth, who had been Virchow's successor in Berlin, and so 
Stanford received an important contribution directly from the country that had brought pathology to a peak of its devel- 
opment. It is interesting that Ophuls at first taught not only pathology, but also histology and bacteriology. Separation 
of the latter discipline at Stanford did not take place until 1911. 

After the death of Dr. Ophuls in 1933 Dr. David A. 
Wood was acting executive until 1 937, when the appoint- 
ment of Dr. William Dock as executive served to stimulate 
clinical and physiological correlations because of Dr. 
Dock's background in internal medicine and clinical phys- 
iology. Dr. Alvin J. Cox, Jr., who followed Dr. Dock in 
1941 had developed his interest in morphology under 
Dr. Ophuls at Stanford and Ludwig Aschoff in Germany. 
His attention to functional relationships was stimulated 
by the several years' association with Dr. Dock. A num- 
ber of other pathologists from different parts of the coun- 
try have joined the Departmental Faculty since then"; cur- 
rently associated are Dr. Lelland J. Rather, Dr. Glen B. 
Haydon and Dr. David Linder. Interests of this Faculty 
have continued to stress the importance of morphology in 
the study of disease, and to emphasize that this method 
can be applied as well to experimental problems as to 
descriptive ones. 

That the Stanford Department of Pathology has played 
a significant role in the development of pathology else- 
where in the United States is indicated by the number of 

our faculty who have accepted executive positions in 
departments of pathology at other schools: Ralph H. 
Major, University of Kansas, 1914; Jean R. Oliver, Long 
Island College of Medicine, 1929; Ernest M. Hall, Univ- 
ersity of Southern California, 1929; William Dock, Cor- 
nell University, 1941; James B. McNaught, University of 
Colorado, 1 945; David A. Wood, University of California 
(Oncology), 1951; William H. Carnes, University of 
Utah, 1956. 

With the move of the Medical School to the campus 
the Department of Pathology will begin to have the ad- 
vantages of University relationships enjoyed by the other 
laboratory departments which are housed on the campus. 
Because of the ease with which pathology lends itself to 
joint projects in teaching and in research, it is reason- 
able to expect that this subject will provide a continuing 
focus for cooperative work within the School of Medicine, 
and that this will encourage teaching and research inter- 
relationships between Medical School and other parts of 
the University. 




Dr. Faber has been associated with Stanford Medical School 
since 1915, coming here after having served as resident 
pathologist at Babies' Hospital in New York and as a re- 
search fellow at the Rockefeller Institute. He was appointed 
Professor of Pediatrics in 1923, continuing in that capacity 
for 26 years. In addition, in 1946-1947 he served as presi- 
dent of the American Pediatric Society. Since 1949, Dr. 
Faber has been an Emeritus Professor, but has continued to 
be very active during this time. He has contributed many 
important articles to the pediatric literature, particularly on 
the subject of poliomyelitis. 


In the first announcement of "The Medical Department of the University of the Pacific" dated 1859 a course of 
lectures on "Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children" by R. Beverly Cole, M.D., "Professor of Obstetrics and 
Diseases of Women and Children, and Physiology" was offered, which dates the beginning of fetal life of pediatrics in 
our institution. The versatile Dr. Cole continued to offer this course until 1864 when the Medical Department closed. 
Reorganized in 1870 as the Medical College of the Pacific its faculty continued to teach pediatrics in conjunction with 
obstetrics and gynecology, Drs. Clinton Cushing and Henry Gibbons, Jr. being in charge of the courses. 

In 1 870 an out-patient clinic known as the Morse Dispensary was begun, with a children's clinic as one of its chief 
branches, which was used for instruction of medical students. The announcement stated that "such a clinic is of special 
value as enabling them to gain practical experience in the diagonsis and treatment of the Diseases of Children which 
cannot be obtained elsewhere." — probably one of the earliest examples in this country of case teaching in pediatrics. 

Class teaching of pediatrics as a separate discipline began in 1881 when Dr. Ellinwood, Professor of Physiology, 
offered a special clinic on "Diseases of Children." A year later Dr. Dorr, Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics, 

offered a series of lectures on diseases of children. His 
successor, Dr. Charles H. Steele, was chief of the Chil- 
dren's Clinic until 1894 when the late Dr. William Fitch 
Cheney took over and instituted several major improve- 
ments: systemic and detailed records of the history and 
physical examinations of every patient and such labora- 
tory tests as were available. These records were continued 
from that time to this: bound copies of those from 1 904 to 
1910 are in the present pediatric library. Dr. Cheney, in 
his first annual report, mentions tapping the ventricle in 
two cases of hydrocephalus, a method revived about 1 8 
years later by Dandy and Blackfan. 

Pediatrics was a "minor" subject in the Cooper cur- 
riculum and remained in the Department of Obstetrics 
until the reorganization of 1908-9 when the Medical 
School was taken over by Stanford University. It was then 
made a division of the Department of Medicine under 
Professor Ray Lyman Wilbur, who became Dean in 191 1 
and served until his assumption of the Presidency of the 
University in 1 91 6. This arrangement continued until 1 927 
when Pediatrics at last became a separate Department of 
the School of Medicine. 

From 1 907 until my arrival in 1915 the acting head of 
Pediatrics was R. Langley Porter, Clinical Professor of 
Pediatrics, who the next year transferred his services to 

the Medical School of the University of California, later 
becoming Dean and still later bestowing his name on the 
Psychiatric Hospital of that institution. 

Dr. Wilbur initiated the so-called geographic full-time 
faculty plan under which men were expected to devote 
the majority of their time to teaching and research but 
were permitted a limited amount of private practice in 
the University Hospital ( Lane and, after 1917, Stanford ) . 
Among those brought by Dr. Wilbur in those early days 
to the Medical School were Albion W. Hewlett, Thomas 
Addis and Ernest C. Dickson. Dr. Wilbur believed that this 
arrangement, under which his faculty men were expected 
to learn the problems and the responsibilities of private 
practice, made them better teachers of medical students, 
most of whom would themselves become practitioners. 
( It also was thought to justify a meager salary scale, and 
undoubtedly saved the University a great deal of money. ) 

In 1 91 5, the pediatric facilities of the Department con- 
sisted of: an out-patient clinic with about 8,000 visits 
annually; an in-patient service of about 20 beds for clinic 
patients; a neanatal service of about the same number 
of bassinets (the exact figures for the last two items are 
not available); and a space on the fourth floor of the 
Medical School building assigned to research, but with 
no furnishings or equipment, and no allowance for tech- 



ABOVE, left to right: Ruth T. Gross, Associate Professor and Acting 
Executive; Hale F. Shirley, Professor; Luigi Luzzotti, Associate Professor; 
John J. Osborne, Associate Professor. BELOW: Ann Peril Purdy, Clinical 
Professor Emeritus; Saul J. Robinson, Associate Clinical Professor. 

nical assistance. A single grant of $1200 was allotted 
to supplying and equipping this laboratory. 

The reorganization of the staff and the in- and out- 
patient services and the preparation of the research lab- 
oratory took most of the time of the new full-time man, 
but a series of three papers on experimental glomerulon- 
ephritis was published in 1917 in the Journal of Experi- 
mental Medicine as first fruits of the research program. 
In February 1918 1 entered the Army Medical Corps and 
did not return until late in 1919. Following this the re- 
search program was gradually revived. The in-patient 
facilities were enlarged by taking over the south wing of 
Third West of Lane Hospital, adding a glass-enclosed 
porch and installing the cubicle system throughout, thus 
doing away with overcrowding and lessening the chances 
of cross-infection which had previously been a serious 
problem. The newborn babies of the Clinic service were 
placed under the Division of Pediatrics. In 1947 a gift of 
$1 0.000 was received from the late Ruth Heller Shainwald 
with which a new and modern nursery for both Clinic and 

private newborn infants was begun in Stanford Hospital. 
This was completed early in 1948 at a total cost of 
$22,993.44 and formally opened in February of that 

In 1923 the first modern unit (McLaughlin Building) of 
the. Stanford Convalescent Home was built and, having 
had an informal consulting arrangement with it since 
1917, I was then appointed Medical Director, and the 
mutually advantageous close liaison with the Division of 
Pediatrics of the Medical School was thus established, 
which continues to the present time. 

In the out-patient clinic, several subdivisions were es- 
tablished at different times. One of the earliest of these 
was the Well Baby Clinic begun by the late Drs. Herbert 
Yerington and George D. Lyman (later famous for his 
books on early California and Nevada history: Ralston's 
Ring; John Marsh, Pioneer, etc.). A clinic for Adolescent 
Girls was set up in 1916 by Dr. Amelia Gates. Dr. Lloyd 
B. Dickey, who joined the pediatric faculty in 1923 (of 
which he is still a member) conducted a clinic for tuber- 
culous children (then a more numerous group than now) 
on which he based a number of scientific papers. The 
precursor of the present Child Psychiatry was already 
established in 1915 by a psychologist, not an M.D., 
named Arthur J. Ritter whose work was largely devoted 
to psychometry. In 1917, Dr. Mary H. Layman joined the 
staff and proceeded to develop a true child psychiatry 
clinic, almost entirely at her own expense, there being 
no University funds for the purpose at that time. It was 
not until 1939 that Dr. Johnson and I, responding to an 
appeal from Dr. Layman, interested the Commonwealth 
Fund in beginning and, for a period of three years, sup- 
porting an enlarged program with a full-time pediatrician 
psychiatrist (Dr. Hale F. Shirley) and an adequate ancil- 
lary staff, which the following year and since then had 
been quartered in a house on Webster Street across 
from the Medical School building. Until 1957 this Child 
Guidance Unit was under the joint direction of the De- 
partment of Pediatrics and the division of Neuropsychia- 
try, and since that time of the Department of Psychiatry, 
but keeping its close relation to Pediatrics. 

A clinic for congenital syphilis was conducted for many 
years under various attending pediatricians until the vir- 
tual disappearance of the congenital disease made it 

A special clinic for cardiac disorders was begun by 
Dr. Ann P. Purdy about 1 940, the work being energetically 


prosecuted by her with meticulous case records. With the 
introduction in 1939 of ductus ligation by Gross and in 
1945 of the Blalock-Taussig operation for the tetralogy 
of Fallot, and the many technical improvements in diag- 
nosis, the work of this clinic became increasingly large 
and important. Close liaison with the Department of 
Surgery in cardiovascular problems has been attained by 
the appointment in both Departments in 1954 of Dr. John 
J. Osborn, while almost equally close relationships have 
been established with the Department of Radiology. The 
work of Dr. Saul J. Robinson who joined the Department 
of Pediatrics in 1948 in diagnosis of congenital heart dis- 
ease is particularly noteworthy. All this expansion of out- 
patient services was chronically impeded by restriction of 
space. The adjoining entry to Lane Hall had to be used 
for the Well Baby Clinic, which in turn expanded into the 
dark and poorly ventilated space under the auditorium 
(sometimes referred to as the Black Hole of Calcutta). 
Here too, on other days, the Heart Clinic was housed. 
The Child Guidance Clinic has already been discussed. 

Until 1 940 the space available for research work was 
even more limited — another converted hallway on the 
fourth floor of the Medical School building part of which 
had to be used for the office of the Executive Head. In 
1940 the Stern Building was completed and most of the 
second floor was given over to the Department. In this 
year the first grant from the National Foundation for 
Infantile Paralysis was obtained, others being given an- 
nually until 1953, providing funds for the series of re- 
search studies on poliomyelitis mentioned below. 

Since 1915 about 1 50 scientific papers have originated 
in the Department, of which roughly 35 percent have been 
investigative and the remainder clinical. Limitations of 
space prevent a detailed description of all of these, but 
the following have been selected as having some present 


Research papers. A series of 3 papers on the etiology 
of glomerulonephritis (1917); one on the use of rabbits 
for pneumococcus typing (1918); the effect of gentian 
violet in vitro on Candida albicans (1927); 2 papers on 
serum proteins and lipids in eczema of infants ( 1 932-3 ) ; 
immunization for pertussis and tetanus, a series of 1 2 
basic studies by the late John J. Miller, Jr. and his asso- 
ciates ( 1 938-49) ; a series of about 30 papers on experi- 
mental poliomyelitis by Faber and his associates (1932- 
55). Other studies after 1949 will be mentioned later. 

Clinical Studies. Amyotonia congenita ( 1917); a series 
of 8 studies of growth of infants and children with new 
charts and tables expressing the normal ranges of values 
for height and weight by age, and sex ( 1 920-29) based 
on frequency distribution of data obtained in the well- 
baby clinic and the San Francisco public schools; food 
requirements of normal newborn infants based on spon- 
taneous intakes; systemic and cutaneous leishmaniasis; 
a series of four papers proposing and later reporting the 
effects of linear craniectomy in premature synostosis of 
the cranal sutures ( 1 924-43 ) ; an early report of megalo- 
blastic anemia treated successfully with liver extract 343 
(1928); relationship of iron deficiency anemia in chil- 
dren to gastric anacidity ( 1 935 ) ; differentiation by serial 
quantitative Wassermann tests of true congenital syphilis 
from simple passive, transplacental transfer of reagin 
from treated mothers to their uninfected infants (1936) 
( before the recognition of this phenomenon, many infants 
had been unnecessarily treated for syphilis and, further, a 
false impression had arisen that congenital syphilis was 
quite easy to cure ) ; acute coccioidomycosis with erythema 
nodosum in children (1939); localized absence of gang- 
lion cells of the myenteric plexus in congenital megacolon 
distal to the dilated portion ( 1 940 ) ; cerebral atrophy in 

relation to pre- and post-natal anoxia (1942, 1947); 
prognosis of acute glomerulonephritis in children (1 946) ; 
a metabolic study of the Butler-Albright syndrome of 
renal acidosis with nephrocalcinosis, etc. in which a de- 
ficiency of carbonic anhydrase was first postulated 
(1948), an explanation later applied to the related 
Lightwood syndrome. 

Only a few large-scale publications have come from 
the Department. In 1 932 a monograph-size discussion was 
published in Medicine on the pathogenesis of poliomye- 
litis and a book on the same general topic in 1955, in 
which the results of many years of research were pre- 
sented. The section on coccioidomycosis in Brennemann's 
Practice of Pediatrics was first published in 1943 and re- 
vised several times since then. The section on poliomyelitis 
in Tice's Practice of Medicine by myself and the late 
Harold L. Amoss was published first in 1952 and revised 
in 1955. Dr. Shirley has published two volumes: "Psychia- 
try for the Pediatrician" (1948) and "The Child, His 
Parents and the Physician" (1954). 

Three of the Lane Lecture series have been given by 
pediatricians: L. Emmett Holt (1924) on "Food, Health 
and Growth"; Thomas M. Rivers ( 1939) on "Viruses and 
Virus Diseases"; and James L. Gamble ( 1949) on "Com- 
panionship of Water and Electrolytes in the Organization 
of Body Fluids." 

On my retirement in 1949, John A. Anderson came 
from the University of Utah to succeed me, and remained 
until 1955 when he moved to Minneapolis as Professor 
of Pediatrics and Head of the Department at the Univ- 
ersity of Minnesota. During his term a considerable ex- 
pansion of the budget made it possible to enlarge the 
full-time staff and both the teaching and the research 
program. Ruth T. Gross, who arrived in 1950, has investi- 

gated the thyrotoxic effects of cobalt, carbohydrate meta- 
bolism in the newborn, and an hereditary defect in red 
cells. Carolyn F. Piel began in 1951 a series of studies on 
nephritis and nephrosis. Luigi Luzzatti, who joined the 
staff in 1951 with duties divided between Pediatrics and 
Preventive Medicine, has specialized in endocrine prob- 
lems. Robert H. Alway first joined the pediatric faculty 
in 1949, developed the teaching service at the San Fran- 
cisco General Hospital and remained until 1952 when he 
moved to the University of Colorado as Professor of Ped- 
iatrics. On Dr. Anderson's departure in 1955 he returned 
to head the Department until in 1957 he became Dean of 
the Medical School and in active charge of the plans of 
the new Medical School on the Stanford Campus. Since 
then Dr. Gross has been Acting Head. Alan Done, of the 
School of Medicine of the University of Utah joined the 
staff in 1958. 

With the move to Palo Alto the physical connections 
between the past of the Department of Pediatrics and its 
future again become tenuous. There will, however, be one 
item of liaison which brings me a personal pleasure and 
will, I trust, be of enduring value to the School: the Refer- 
ence File, which I started in the early 20's and now con- 
tains references to over 45,000 original scientific articles. 
This, together with a library of pediatric and other med- 
ical journals, various texts, and a large number of re- 
prints, is to be housed in a reading room in the Pediatric 
section of the new Medical School building, a room 
planned by Mrs. Faber and paid for from her personal 
earnings. Here, it is hoped, the staff will find an atmo- 
sphere favorable to study and reflection as the Depart- 
ment enters its second century and welcomes a new Chief, 
Norman Kretchmer. 




Dr. Goldstein received his BA from Harvard University in 
1940 and his MD from Harvard in 1943. He interned at 
Mt. Sinai Hospital in New York in 1944 and served in the 
army until 1946. He returned to Harvard where he began 
an academic career in pharmacology in 1947. He was ap- 
pointed the Moseley Traveling Fellow of Harvard In 1949- 
50 and served as an assistant at the Pharmacological Insti- 
tute in Berne, Switzerland, 1 95 1 . After attaining the assist- 
ant professorship at Harvard he came to Stanford Medical 
School as Professor and Executive of the Department of 
Pharmacology in 1955. 


The Department of Pharmacology has been looking forward to "the move" for many years. We will have a new 
home large enough to accommodate all our faculty. We will have the opportunity for close daily contact with students 
that is so necessary and that was impossible these years of commuting for a once-a-week teaching day in San Fran- 
cisco. But there are two things we anticipate eagerly above all else. These are, first, working out the role of pharmacology 
in a completely new curriculum; and second, involving more students than ever before in research activities. 

As to the first, we shall be teaching pharmacology, no longer as a compact unit, to be crammed and soon for- 
gotten, but over the entire three-year preclinical period of the new curriculum. This new approach is forcing us to look at 
what we teach and how we teach it, much more from the student's point of view than ever before. At present we simply 
assume (how absurd) that our student knows and remembers all his anatomy, biochemistry and physiology when we 

teach any aspect of pharmacology. In the new program 
we will be teaching each phase of a subject sequence, at 
about the same time other departments do. 

Anesthetics, analgesics, and other drugs acting on the 
central nervous system, traditionally the curtain-openers 
of a pharmacology course, will be referred to the third 
year, where neuroanatomy and neurophysiology will also 
be taught. Chemotherapy will be part of a block of time 
on Infection, in which microbiology, pathology, and pre- 
ventive medicine will also participate. Naturally, we hope 
the new plan will make all the basic medical sciences, in- 
cluding pharmacology, more meaningful to the student. 
Like any new venture, this one will present problems as 
we go along, but it is a challenge that we welcome. 

As to the second benefit we look forward to, the in- 
volvement of more students in research, this grows out of 
the new curriculum, for it depends upon free time as well 
as upon motivation. Students who enter the Stanford 
Program after four years of college will have about half 

of their time free during the three preclinical years. This 
they may spend as they choose. Many will take advantage 
of the opportunities for taking university nonmedical 
courses, perhaps winning a MA degree in a chosen field. 
But we hope many students will decide to have a fling at 
research, to find out what investigative work is like, per- 
haps to be "bitten by the bug" and find such satisfaction 
in the life of discovery that they will remain in the ranks 
of medical researchers. How many will actually alter the 
direction of their lives we cannot even guess. But we 
strongly believe that some research experience is an in- 
dispensable part of a doctor's education, whatever field 
of general practice or specialization he may enter. The 
physical amalgamation of the medical school with a 
university outstandingly active in research of every kind 
presents an opportunity we hope to exploit fully, for the 
benefit of our students. 



Sophomores in Pharmacology lab 

Left to right: Robert H. Dreisbach, Professor; 
Arthur Furst, Professor. 




Clamp that artery, doctor. 



Dr. Baumberger, Professor Emeritus of physiology, received 
his B.S. from the University of California in 1914 and his 
M.S. and Sc.D. from Harvard University in 1916 and 191 8. 
He came to Standard as an instructor in Physiology in 
1919 and has been a full Professor since 1935. A few of 
Dr. Baumberger' s other achievements are as follows: 
Comm. Relief Belgium Ed. Foundation Fellow — Brussels 
1925-26, American Scandinavian Fellow — Lund and 
Copenhagen, 1926, Research Associate, Harvard, 1932- 
33, and visiting Professor at the Washington University 
School of Medicine (St. Louis). 


The Chair of Physiology was first occupied by R. Beverly Cole, Professor of Obstetrics, Diseases of Women and 
Children and Physiology in the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific in 1 859. Levi Cooper Lane, who had 
studied physiological and toxicological chemistry with Woehler in Germany, occupied the Chair from 1 860 to 1 863, when 
J. P. Whitney took over, but was promptly followed by C. N. Ellinwood, who held it, while later Dean and President at 
the Cooper Medical College, until 1906. These four men were physicians and their principal contributions were to med- 
ical practice rather than to pure physiology. 

It is interesting to compare the dates for these California institutions with the date of the first laboratory of physi- 
ology in the United States: H. P. Bowditch's at Harvard, 1 871 . The influence of Claude Bernard, Carl Ludwig and Michael 
Foster was still dominant, and the American Physiological Society was not organized until 1 887. Beaumont's great book 
had been written in 1 833 and Morton had demonstrated ether in 1 846. S. Weir Mitchell was in his prime in 1 860, but 
H. P. Bowditch was only twenty and H. Newell Martin was twelve and R. H. Chittenden only four. Austin Flint wrote his 
five volumes on "The Physiology of Man" and his text "Human Physiology" about this time and his text was used at 

Cooper in 1871. Physiology was, therefore, not lagging 
greatly in comparison with the rest of the United States 
and it is not surprising that laboratory work was not em- 
phasized in San Francisco until about 1893. 

There was no description given of the work in physiol- 
ogy in the Annual Announcements until 1 878, except that 
it was included under the list of "Branches Taught" as 
"Theoretical and Practical Physiology." Anatomy, how- 
ever, was described in some detail and was required, al- 
though physiology was not. In 1878 the following des- 
cription was given: "Physiology — Professor C. N. Ellin- 
wood, Surgeon at the U. S. Marine Hospital. The lectures 
and recitations in this important department will thor- 
oughly familiarize the student with the established facts 
relating to the function of organs and the laws of life. 
Demonstration will be made upon living animals, of im- 
portant functions when it seems necessary or beneficial 
to the student." 

This description was used repeatedly until 1 892, when 
the last line was omitted. At this time, A. W. Hoisholt, 
M.D., became Assistant to the Chair of Physiology. The 
next year he was promoted to Adjunct. In the meantime, 
Ellinwood had added the title of Acting Professor of 
Clinical Surgery. Hoisholt apparently put new life into 
the work in physiology for the description changed to: 
"Physiology — Professor C. N. Ellinwood; Adjunct, A. W. 
Hoisholt. The lecture in this important department will be 
illustrated experimentally as far as practical, and will 

familiarize students with established facts relating to the 
functions of organs and the laws of life." 

"During the short term of the first year a course on 
physiological chemistry will be given; during the long 
term physiology of nerve and muscle and of the special 
senses will be taken up. The second year's lectures will, 
during the short term, 2/1 -4/30, be on the subject of the 
brain, spinal cord and generation; during the long term, 
6/1-11/30, they will be devoted to the circulation, res- 
piration, digestion, absorption, secretion and excretion. 

"A Physiological Laboratory has been equipped with 
the necessary apparatus for making experiments on ani- 
mals in illustration of the subjects treated. The minute 
anatomy of each organ will receive special consideration 
in connection with its functions, and microscopical dem- 
onstrations will be made of the same." 

This has a very modern ring and histology was then 
included with physiology, as was the custom. Hoisholt 
published some pure physiological papers, e.g. "Is the 
Nervous Impulse Delayed in the Motor Nerve Termina- 
tions?", Journal of Physiology VI (1883-6) 1-21. He later 
became Clinical Professor of Medicine (Psychiatry). It is 
interesting to note the texts used as these are listed for 
each year. They varied from Dalton; Flint; Draper; Mar- 
shall; and Kirkes in 1871 to Foster in 1884 and Landois 
in 1 895 and the American Textbook in 1 900. 

There was no laboratory of physiology when Stanford 
University took over. In 1 895 Oliver Jenkins, Ph.D., made 


Left to right: Jefferson M. Crismon, Professor; George A. Feigen, Asso- 
ciate Professor; Frederick A. Fuhrman, Professor; Ronald Grant, 

two trips a week from the "Farm," to lecture at the 
Cooper Medical School and then established a laboratory 
with $500 for equipment that was imported from Cam- 
bridge, England. He was assisted in the course by Ray 
Lyman Wilbur, then a medical student. Laboratory work 
was added and also a course in general Biology. 

In 1901 W. E. Garrey became Professor of Physiology 
at Cooper, and held the post until 1909 on a full time 
salary. Garrey had taken his Ph.D. under Jacques Loeb 
at the University of Chicago and he studied also in Berlin 
and Paris, and came directly from Europe to Cooper. 
Later he took his M.D. at Rush. His principal contributions 
were to the understanding of cardiac fibrillation. 

Garrey, inspired by the experimental approach of Loeb, 
emphasized laboratory experimentation and individual 
research. He required a laboratory notebook based on 
the six hours per week of laboratory work and a thesis 

in physiology from each student! The laboratory was open 
at all times and he was always available to help inter- 
ested students with their research. He also added Physio- 
logical Chemistry to his teaching. F. E. Blaisdell gave the 
general Biology course in the "Department." 

After 1909 the courses in physiology were transferred 
to the farm. There the head of the department was Jen- 
kins, who was one of the first professors appointed at 
Stanford by David Starr Jordan. Courses in the Depart- 
ments of Physiology-Histology at Stanford under Jenkins 
and F. M. McFarland were offered from the very begin- 
ning of Stanford University. They were very closely in- 
tegrated with the Department of Zoology and with the 
Hopkins Seaside Laboratory (later to become the Hop- 
kins Marine Station). The contributions of the early staff 
of the department were usually of a morphological-nat- 
uralistic nature. Jenkins and Anton J. Carlson's paper in 
1904: "Physiological evidence of the fluidity of the con- 
ducting substance in the pedal nerve of the slug" was 
one of the first contributions in experimental physiology 

" '- : 

from Stanford. Carlson was the first to receive a Ph.D. in 
Physiology. He later became famous for his studies of the 
physiology of digestion at the University of Chicago and 
was known amongst all physiologists as Ajax. 

By the time Stanford took over the Physiology Depart- 
ment had added J. R. Slonaker and F. W. Weymouth to 
the staff, as well as Clara Stoltenberg, a histologist. In 
1916 Histology was transferred to Anatomy and E. G. 
Martin, Ph.D., was made head of the department. C. D. 
Shafer was appointed to an instructorship in Physiology 
in 1918, and J. P. Baumberger in 1919. 

Martin's chief contributions were in heart and skeletal 
muscle physiology and in industrial fatigue. Slonaker 
wrote papers on vision in birds and made extensive stud- 
ies of the effects of nutrition and the estrus cycle on the 
spontaneous activity of rats. His research work was the 
first to receive extensive outside support, in this case from 
the National Research Council. During his investigation, 
the attic of the Physiology Department was a symphony of 
the noises of rotating activity cages at night when the 
rats became most active, sometimes running as much as 
35 miles. 

Weymouth and Martin wrote a textbook The Elements 
of Physiology which was used in the medical physiology 
from 1928 to 1933. Weymouth developed courses in the 
special senses and in statistics. He became head of the 
Department on Martin's death in 1 934. Martin advocated 
the teaching of physiology as a biological science and 
was active in establishing the School of Biology at Stan- 
ford, of which Physiology became a part and physiology 
was taught at the Hopkins Marine Station each summer. 
The Department maintained a dual connection with the 
Medical School and with the School of Biology until 
1944, when it dropped the latter. 

The 20th Century trend was toward experimental biol- 
ogy and this affected the developments both in teaching 
and research. More physio-chemical concepts were 


brought into physiology. Shafer worked on muscle rigor, 
Baumberger on the respiratory function of the blood. 
Acid-bace equilibria, pH, oxidation-reduction potentials, 
etc., came into the picture. L. Irving took his Ph.D. and 
was added to the staff and J. J. R. McLeod came as ex- 
change professor. Victor Hall, M.D. and John Field, Ph.D., 
made a team of teachers and investigators, the former in 
circulation, and the latter in cellular metabolism. In 1 933- 
34 Baumberger had the support of the Rockefeller Foun- 
dation in developing apparatus for the study of biological 

When Weymouth retired in 1949, J. M. Crismon. M.D., 
was appointed Chairman. George Feigen, Ph.D. and 
Ronald Grant, Ph.D., and Frederick Fuhrman, a Stanford 
Ph.D., took a large share of the teaching when Hall and 
Field left for UCLA in 1951. Baumberger retired in 1958 
and I. J. Lichton, Ph.D. and B.E. Vaughan, Ph.D., have 
received appointments. 

The teaching has become more and more directed spe- 
cifically toward medicine; Biology, and Biochemistry, hav- 
ing prepared the students more fully in the fundamentals 
that are basic to general physiological concepts than in 
the early thirties. The research of the department is so 
extensive that it is not practical to describe it here. There 
are, however, four major fields that might be mentioned; 
Microcirculation studies (Crismon), cold injury (Fuhr- 
man), hypothalamus (Grant) , and heart ( Feigen ). Much 
of the research isnowsupported by government grants or 
contracts. Several of the faculty have served on editorial 
boards of physiological journals and as consultants to 
the government. Some of the recent Ph.D.'s are now heads 
of departments in important institutions. 

The department has made a triple contribution of great 
importance: ( 1 ) the training of students of medicine, (2) 
the training of men for research in physiology and (3) 
the advancement of knowledge in the field of physiology. 



Dr. Beard received his A.B. degree from Stanford University 
in 1932 and M.D. degree in 1938. Following this he re- 
ceived the M.P.H. degree from Harvard University in 1940. 
Since then he has been on the faculty of Preventive Med- 
icine and Public Health at Stanford and is currently Execu- 
tive Professor of the department. He is especially well 
known for his work in occupational health and in addition 
to his post at Stanford is Clinical Professor of Occupational 
Health at the University of California Medical School. 


Stanford was among the first medical schools to recog 
the first year of the reorganization of Cooper Medical Colle 
recommended that "the teaching in hygiene" should be on a 
lice health administration should be required in the curricul 
course. William F. Snow was first Professor of Hygiene and P 
department, Dr. Snow was called to a temporary position a 
W. H. Kellogg of the State Health Department and others are 
ical school, but no organized departmental activities are reco 
lie health, particularly in the control of venereal diseases. 

In 1920-21, the Medical Department was reorganize 
among its ten departments. There was more evidence of g 
Department was renamed Public Health and Preventive Med 

nize preventive medicine as a specialized discipline. In 1908, 
ge as the Medical Department of Stanford University, it was 

laboratory and field basis; that industrial hygiene and pub- 
urn; and that epidemiology should be offered as an elective 
ublic Health. Unfortunately for the development of the new 
s operating head of the State Health Department in 1909. 

listed as having given lectures on public health in the med- 
rded. Dr. Snow went on to become a national leader in pub- 

d as a School, and Hygiene and Public Health was listed 
ood intent than of accomplishment until 1925, when the 
cine and E. C. Dickson was named Professor and Executive. 

Dr. Dickson had come to Stanford in 1 91 1 , as an Assist- 
ant Professor of Pathology. He had his training at the 
University of Toronto. He at first worked on the nephritis 
caused by uranium. By 1916, he was engaged in studies 
of botulism. He collaborated with K. F. Meyer and J. C. 
Geiger of the University of California's Hooper Founda- 
tion, and by 1 922 they had completed reports which revo- 
lutionized the procedures of food canning in the State. 
They were credited with "saving the industry." This was 
an accomplishment of major importance, as there had 
been widespread concern about the dangers of botulism 
from canned foods. Now, botulinus poisoning is almost 
unknown, and it has been many years since commercially 
processed foods have been involved. 

Dr. Dickson developed an extensive teaching program. 
He brought in Professor L. B. Reynolds, Professor of San- 
itary Engineering, to teach about water purification, waste 
disposal, and similar topics. This was the first recorded 
instance of continuing collaboration in teaching of med- 
ical students by faculty from University departments out- 
side the medical school. Industrial medicine was taught by 
Morton Gibbons and W. P. Shepard, and tropical med- 
icine by William Reich. W. H. Brown and John Sippy were 
among the great names of public health who took part 
in teaching. The Department operated the bacteriology 
laboratory for the hospital, and students were given op- 
portunity to practice the application of bacteriologic 

Emmet Rixford, in Surgery, and William Ophuls, in 
Pathology, had in 1892 described a highly mortal new 
disease, coccidioidal granuloma. Dr. Dickson had become 
interested in it, and his laboratory had advanced the 
identification and characterization of the causative fun- 
gus, Coddidioides immitis. In 1 929, Harold D. Chope ( now 
Clinical Professor) acquired a pulmonary infection with 
the fungus, while working in the laboratory. To every- 
one's surprise, he did not develop progressive granulo- 
matous lesions. This observation, together with some 
others made by Myrnie Gifford, one of our alumni in 
Bakersfield, led Dr. Dickson to suspect that the granuloma 
phase was only the conspicuous, severe manifestation of 
a widespread infection which was- relatively benign. 
Charles Edward Smith carried forward this idea by ex- 
tensive epidemiological studies, in which he was joined 
by Rodney Beard and others. Much of this work was done 
at Air Force installations in the San Joaquin Valley dur- 
ing World War II. They developed new diagnostic meth- 
ods and demonstrated widespread inapparent infection, 
showed that dust control could decrease the incidence of 
infection, and that prolonged rest diminished the in- 
cidence of granulomas in those who developed clinical 

Dr. Smith succeeded Dr. Dickson as head of the De- 
partment in 1939. At this time, it moved its quarters into 
the new Stern Laboratory. The bacteriology service was 
transferred to the Department of Medicine. An innova- 


Left to right: Charles R. Gardipee. Associate Professor; Quentin M. 
Geiman, Professor. 

tion in the curriculum at this time was a course operated 
with the assistance of the Social Service of the Hospital, 
in which students visited patients in their homes, reported 
on environmental factors influencing illness, and learned 
of the community health and welfare agencies which were 
helpful in modifying these factors. At the same time, a 
program of guided field trips and seminar discussions con- 
cerned with public health and welfare agencies and in- 
dustrial health programs was begun. In another year, 
required lecture courses in statistics and occupational 
health were introduced. Lectures in tropical medicine had 
been discontinued, but were shortly resumed by A. C. 
Reed in the Department of Medicine. 

In 1 949, Dr. Smith moved to the University of California 
to be Dean of the School of Public Health. Members of 
our faculty had a large share of leadership in the con- 

ception and growth of this School, which has always felt 
a considerable Stanford influence. 

Rodney Beard was appointed as Head of the Depart- 
ment upon Dr. Smith's departure. He was joined by 
Charles R. Gardipee in 1951, and by Luigi Luzzatti in 
1954. The latter was a joint appointment with Pediatrics, 
the fruition of plans for joint teaching by the two depart- 
ments which had been discussed for several years. 

Dr. Gardipee is particularly interested in medical care 
organization and has done research on union health and 
welfare plans. For two years, he worked on the develop- 
ment of demographic and medical service information in 
connection with planning the new medical curriculum. 

In 1955, the medical school received a grant from the 
National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis for the teach- 
ing of Rehabilitation. The administration of this was 
placed in Preventive Medicine, and added a social worker 
to our faculty, and teaching assistants in social work and 
vocational counseling. 

We were also enabled in 1955 to obtain a Professor 
of Tropical Public Health, Quentin M. Geiman, Ph.D., who 
has built up a program of teaching and research in en- 
vironmental hygiene, epidemiology, and parasitology. 

The Department has had a large share in developing 
plans for the new medical school. We shall enter upon 
very extensive conjoint teaching in the new curriculum, 
with specific participation in each of the subject areas 
which have been designated. 

Future plans envision work in planning of community 
health activities, studies in health education, and expan- 
sion of occupational health functions, while continuing 
most of our present functions. A program of residency 
training in preventive medicine is also under active 



Dr. Johnson, Professor of Psychiatry, received his A.B. at 
the University of Nebraska in 1921, B.Sc. in 1922, and 
M.D. in 1924 from the same school. He had further train- 
ing at the Philadelphia Hospital for Mental Diseases and 
Philadelphia General Hospital. He began teaching at the 
University of Colorado in 1926 where he remained until 
1933, serving in many capacities, among them being Acting 
Head of the Department of Psychiatry. He has been with 
Stanford since 1933, serving as Executive of the Depart- 
ment of Psychiatry during that time. 


It is a premise widely held in modern psychiatry that early life experiences are extremely important as determinants 
of the adult personality. It is further held that a life history, which considers all of the facts of a person's life in chrono- 
logical order, gives us a better understanding of that person. In this brief review of the teaching of psychiatry at Stanford 
we will consider the premise and follow the procedure, recognizing that as in any life history, all the facts are never 

In keeping with the procedure, a brief "family history" is in order. We quote largely from the Annual Catalogues. 
In view of later relationships it is noteworthy that the salutatory address to the trustees of the University of the Pacific, 
at the opening of the Medical Department, was given on May 5, 1 859, by the Honorable George Barstow, Professor of 
Medical Jurisprudence. Subsequently, Medical Jurisprudence was taught along with lectures on Insanity. In 1870 it was 
announced that "the 9th annual course of lectures of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific will com- 
mence on the first Monday in June, 1 871 , and continue until November." This college was established by "a few medical 
gentlemen, earnest in their desire for mutual improvement, anxious to increase their store of knowledge, and, like true 

scientists the world over, ever willing, even eager, to 
impart their knowledge to others." "Commencing with a 
merely nominal class, after 6 years it was able to number 
24 matriculates and 28 graduates." "The Faculty refers 
with pride to the professional careers of these graduates, 
which have almost uniformly reflected credit on the 

"For reasons very generally known and which it is un- 
necessary to repeat here (important, the death of Profes- 
sor Elias S. Cooper), the Medical School was suspended 
in 1864, the Toland School taking its place. The latter, 
however, never fulfilled the expectations of the old fac- 
ulty who accepted Professorships in it and finally, in 
1870, they withdrew, and, uniting with other members 
of the old school and some newly elected Professors, the 
Medical Department of the University of the Pacific was 

"In making the announcement for the coming course, 
the Faculty desire to assure the Professors and the public 
of the permanency of the undertaking. Most of the Pro- 
fessors are tried and successful teachers, who take pride 
and satisfaction in imparting to others that knowledge 
which a large experience has given them. Students are 
assured that the liveliest personal interest will be taken 
in their welfare and progress." 

Although the University was located at Santa Clara, 
the Medical Department was located in San Francisco. 
One reason for this, as expressed in the catalogue was 

"climate." "It will be observed that the regular course of 
lectures takes place in the summer and fall, contrary to 
the usual plan. The objections to a summer course, which 
obtain on the Atlantic border, are entirely absent here. 
The heat is never oppressive or enervating; on the con- 
trary, the bracing summer winds conduce to mental activ- 
ity. The atmosphere is dry, the temperature rarely above 
70° and ranging considerably below this; and a strong 
breeze blows from the ocean from before noon until night. 
All the circumstances tend to retard decomposition, and 
to prevent in a measure, as well as to carry off, unwhole- 
some effluvia." 

In 1872, by affiliation with the University (City) Col- 
lege, the school became The Medical College of the 
Pacific. This affiliation continued until 1 883 when "at the 
cost of about 5100,000 (the college and the grounds), 
Professor L. C. Lane, from his private means — the accum- 
ulation of years of professional labor — constructed the 
noble edifice on the north-east corner of Sacramento and 
Webster Streets which became the home of Cooper Med- 
ical College." 

Although it is indicated in the Catalogue beginning 
in 1871 that among the principal branches taught are 
"Histology and Diseases of the Nervous System" and 
"Hygiene and Insanity," it was not until the announce- 
ment of the session of 1879 that a person was identified 
with the teaching. In that year, an intermediate course 
was introduced. Professor Joseph O. Hirschfelder, Pro- 




Left to right: Thomas A. Gonda, Associate Professor; Hale F. Shirley, 

fessor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics, lectured on 
Diseases of the Nervous System and Dr. J. H. McBride 
lectured on "Insanity." Dr. McBride's name appears only 
once in the Catalogue, and in subsequent years "Insanity" 
and Medical Jurisprudence was taught by Professor Henry 
Gibbons, Professor of the Principles and Practice of Med- 
icine and Clinical Medicine. 

In 1 884, it is reported that of 2056 new patients visit- 
ing the Morse Dispensary, 1 38 came to the "Nervous Dis- 
ease Clinic." In the announcement for 1 887 it is noted 
that Dr. W. S. Whitwell is adjunct to the chair of Obstetrics 
and Lecturer on Mental Diseases. The first reference to the 
nature of the course appears in the Catalogue for 1 890, 
where it is noted that in the 3rd year 16 lectures in 
"Mental Disease" are given. In 1891 Dr. Whitwell ap- 
pears as lecturer on "Mental Diseases" only. From this 
information, it appears that he was the first specialist in 
mental disease on the faculty. In 1 892 the number of lec- 
ture hours was increased to 24. In 1 893, Dr. A. M. Gard- 
ner, Superintendent of the Insane Asylum at Napa began 
giving the lectures on Insanity and Medical Jurisprudence. 
In 1896, Dr. Gardner was listed also as Acting Professor 
of the Principles and Practice of Medicine and in 1897, 
the dual appointment was changed and he became Pro- 
fessor of Legal Medicine, Mental and Nervous Diseases. 

Items of general interest during this period were the 
opening of Lane Hospital, announced in 1 895 ( $2.50 per 
ward bed, $3-$4 for 2-4 bed rooms, $5-S10 for private 
rooms). In 1899-90, Dr. R. L. Wilbur appears as Lecturer 
on and Demonstrator of Physiology; the first Catalogue 
identification with Stanford is noted in the appearance 
of Oliver Peebles Jenkins as Acting Professor of Physiol- 
ogy at Cooper, Professor of Physiology and Histology at 
Leland Stanford, Jr., University,- and Professor William 
Ophuls replaced Professor Albert Abrams as Professor 
of Pathology. 

In 1 899, Dr. Dreisback Smith of Napa appears as 
Assistant to the Chair of Legal Medicine — the first staff 
expansion. In that year, the first texts were recommended: 
Spit'zka and Regis. In 1903-04, courses are described 
under departmental classification. Orphans in this depart- 
mental structure are Dermatology, Mental Disease with 
a sub-heading, Legal Medicine, Hygiene, and Medical 
Latin. We interpret this as indicating that these courses 
were so generally all inclusive that they should not be 
confined to a single department. Other interpretations 
are possible. 

The program for teaching, one hour lecture each week 
during the senior year continued until 1909. In that year 
the first Catalogues published by Stanford University ap- 
peared. Dr. Gardner's name disappears and although the 
Catalogue indicates that Lectures on Psychiatry were 
given for 1 hour each week during the 4th year, the lec- 
turer was "to be appointed" from 1 909 to 1 91 3 when the 
name Andrew William Hoisholt, Clinical Professor of Med- 
icine (Psychology), Superintendent for the Hospital for 
the Insane at Napa, appears. Professor Hoisholt received 
an M.D. degree from Cooper Medical College in 1882, 
an M.D. from the University of Heidelberg in 1 884, and 
served as adjunct to the Chair of Physiology of Cooper 
from 1891 to 1893. He was Assistant Physician at the 
Stockton State Hospital from 1889 to 1913 and became 
Superintendent at Napa in 1913. Dr. Hoisholt continued 
as Professor until 1921. During his period as Professor 
there is the first reference to a Psychiatric Outpatient 
Department in 1916. The lecture period was increased to 
1 1/2 hours weekly the same year. In 1917 began the rota- 
tion of interns for a 2-month service at the Napa State 
Hospital. Throughout this early period the field of neu- 
rology and neuropathology was developing in the De- 
partments of Medicine and Pathology. 

Dr. Walter Schaller was graduated from Cooper Medical 
College in 1902. After serving as Assistant in Pathology 
to Dr. Ophuls in 1905-06, he spent 1906-08 as Assistant 
Surgeon in the U. S. Navy, 1 909-1 1 in study in European 
climes and in 1911 returned to San Francisco and Stanford 
Medical School. Over the next 35 years, until he became 
emeritus in 1947, he was a leading participant in the 
teaching and research programs interested in "nervous 
and mental diseases." In 1913 appeared Dr. Henry 
George Mehrtens. Graduated from Stanford Medical 
School in 1913. he served as intern and house officer at 
Lane. In 1919 he became Assistant Clinical Professor of 
Medicine (Psychiatry), house officer and medical advisor 
to students. In 1921 he first took over the lecture courses. 
During this time inpatient services for psychiatric patients 
were developed. Legend has it that these services, like 
Topsy, just grew. Interested in providing hospital care for 
the psychiatric patient in proximity to other medical serv- 
ices, Dr. Mehrtens utilized his position as house physician 
to rule on the suitability of patients for admission. Ruling 
further on the unsuitability of adjacent beds for non- 
psychiatric patients, he gradually extended the domain 
until II West became a unit which could be organized for 
the care of the psychiatric patient, the first and for many 
years the only such unit in a general hospital in the West. 

In 1922, Dr. James Cutting from Agnews State Hospital 
became Chief of Psychiatry Clinic with Mrs. E. D. Whit- 
more, Assistant in Psychology, and Mrs. Grace Hunt, 
Assistant in Mental Rating. In 1922, an elective course 
was offered, in the summer, in Abnormal Psychology. This 
course included "actual work in mental rating so that the 
student may become quite accurate in the techniques of 
mental rating. He shall be required to develop facility in 
taking a psychological history in order to detect abnormal 
personalities. The examples of the various abnormal per- 
sonalities will be demonstrated. Possibilities of therapy 
and re-education." 

In 1926-27 graduate training was officially introduced 
with the appointment of Dr. Pearl Pouppirt as senior intern 
in Neuropsychiatry. Previously Dr. Walter Schilling had 
served as assistant after his graduation from Harvard 
Medical School. Many others assisted during this time, 
notably Dr. Edward Stadtherr who was shot due to mis- 
taken identity — the patient thought he was a surgeon; 


Dr. Kolko conducts seminar in psychiatry. 

Neurology-Psychiatry Out-patient Department 


Dr. Julian Wolfsohn, for many years 
chief of the Stanford service at the San 
Francisco Hospital; Dr. Joseph Catton; 
Dr. Norman Gottbrath; Dr. Thomas In- 
man. Dr. Mehrtens died in 1933 at the 
age of 47, having contributed much in 
his influence on teaching and research 
throughout his association at Stanford. 
The teaching of psychiatry at Stan- 
ford has always been characterized by 
a broad approach designed to relate 
the principles of scientific medicine to 
the problems of the disordered function- 
ing of the human personality. As the 
range of the determinant factors has in- 
creased, so has the interest of members 
of the staff extended. We may properly 
say, in support of the premise of the in- 
fluence of early experience, that after 
1 00 years the staff continue "earnest in 
their desire for mutual improvement, 
anxious to increase their store of knowl- 
edge, and, like true scientists the world 
over, ever willing, even eager to impart 
their knowledge to others!" 




Dr. Kaplan graduated from Rush Medical College in 1940, 
and served as intern at the Michael Reese Hospital the 
following year. In succeeding years, Dr. Kaplan served as 
a resident in radiation therapy at the Michael Reese Hos- 
pital and as a fellow in radiology at the National Cancer 
Institute and at the University of Michigan. Prior to coming 
to Stanford, he had been an Assistant Professor at Yale 
and a radiologist for the National Cancer Institute. Dr. 
Kaplan came to Stanford in 1948, and has remained here 
since that time as Professor and Executive of Radiology. 
He is an internationally known authority on cancer and has 
done pioneering work in the treatment of malignancies 
with the linear accelerator. 


The first radiologist at Stanford University Hospital, Dr. Walter Whitney Boardman, was appointed in 1 91 2. He held 
the title of "Director of Actinography" in the Department of Medicine and his quarters were located in the old Lane 
Hospital. Radiology was established in 1 920 as a Division of the Department of Medicine. Dr. W. Edward Chamberlain 
was appointed as the first Chief of the Division, with Dr. Robert R. Newell as his principal assistant. Together, they pio- 
neered the development of new equipment for fluoroscopy and radiography, and made significant contributions to the 
early evolution of radiologic physics. The radiology service soon became noted as a center for the training of residents, 
and this enviable reputation has been maintained to the present day. 

In 1929, Dr. Chamberlain resigned to accept the Chair of Radiology at Temple University School of Medicine and 
was succeeded as Chief of the service by Dr. Newell, under whose guidance the physical dimensions of the unit grew 
until it displaced the photographic laboratory, with which it had originally shared space on the first floor of Stanford 
Hospital. In the late thirties, the staff included such eminent diagnostic radiologists as Drs. Edward Leef and Frank Wind- 
holz, and a young radiation therapist, Dr. Eric Liliencrantz, whose untimely death in an airplane crash cut short a bril- 

liant career. Meanwhile, an affiliated teaching service in 
radiology had been established under Stanford auspices 
at the San Francisco Hospital; this service, which has been 
supervised for many years by Dr. L. Henry Garland, has 
provided certain types of clinical material which comple- 
ment that available at Stanford University Hospitals, and 
has therefore served to strengthen the residency training 
program materially. 

In 1947, after a remarkable struggle to maintain a high 
level of clinical radiology despite extreme wartime short- 
ages of professional and technical personnel, Dr. Newell 
wearily took a sabbatical leave to study the medical uses 
of radioactive isotopes, which were just being introduced 
as new diagnostic and therapeutic tools. He returned as 
Professor of Medicine (Biophysics) and first Head of the 
Isotope Laboratory, which was established as a unit of 
the Department of Medicine. 

Radiology became a separate department in 1948, 
with Dr. Henry S. Kaplan as Professor and Executive of 
the Department, and Dr. Henry H. Jones as Instructor and 
sole other full-time staff member. The Department, which 
had become physically rundown during the war, was re- 
modeled and equipped with modern radiographic appar- 
atus, including one of the first rapid cassette changers 

for angiocardiography. 

An intensive program of clinical research in cardiac 
radiology was inaugurated, which, under the direction of 
Dr. Herbert L. Abrams, is now of internationally recog- 
nized stature. This program, which has developed in close 
collaboration with the Departments of Pediatrics, Med- 
icine, and Surgery, gained impetus two years ago when a 
large research grant to Dr. Abrams made possible the 
world's first installation of biplane 1 1 inch image in- 
tensifiers for cineangiocardiography. This equipment, 
which will be moved to the new Department in Palo Alto, 
provides a degree of detailed information about aberra- 
tions in cardiovascular physiology which is essential to 
keep pace with developments in open heart surgery. 

In 1952, discussions were initiated with Dr. Edward L. 
Ginzton, Professor of Physics at Stanford and Head of the 
University's Microwave Laboratory, pertaining to the de- 
sign and construction of a medical version of the linear 
electron accelerator, a new type of high energy device in 
whose development Stanford scientists had played a key 
role. With the aid of grants from the National Cancer 
Institute and American Cancer Society, Dr. Ginzton and 
his associates constructed the first medical linear accelera- 
tor in this country. This machine, which provides x-rays 


Left to right: Leo H. Garland, Clinical Professor; Henry H. Jones, Asso- 
ciate Professor; Herbert L. Abrams, Associate Professor; William L. 
Anderson, Acting Assistant Professor. 

with a peak energy of about 6 million volts, was installed 
in 1955 in a radiotherapy annex building, constructed 
v. *h the aid of a generous gift from the James Irvine 
Foundation. The installation and calibration of the 
machine was supervised by a team of physicians headed 
by Dr. Mitchel Weissbluth. On January 31,1 956, the first 
patient, a seven-month-old boy with retinoblastoma, was 
treated, launching a clinical research program in high 
energy radiotherapy of malignant disease which will now 
be transferred to the campus department under the direc- 
tion of Dr. Kaplan and Dr. Malcolm A. Bagshaw. There, 
it is anticipated that an additional 6 Mev linear accelera- 

tor will also be available, and work will continue on an 
experimental program employing electron beams, at en- 
ergies ranging from 8 to 50 Mev, using the Mark IV accel- 
erator of the nearby Microwave Laboratory. 

In 1948, experimental laboratories for the new de- 
partment became available in the Stern Laboratory Build- 
ing, and Dr. Kaplan's colony of highly inbred mice were 
flown out from Bethesda, Maryland, and housed in these 
quarters. Investigations on the fundamental mechanisms 
of radiation carcinogenesis, which are still a major ac- 
tivity of the laboratory, were its first concern. These stud- 
ies have now established the fact that lymphatic leuke- 
mia, induced by systemic irradiation of mice, arises by a 
completely indirect mechanism which involves the activa- 
tion of a latent virus-like agent, and the development of 
the disease may be prevented, after radiation exposure, 
by either the injection of the compatible bone marrow or 
appropriate hormone treatment. 
In 1955-1956, the research lab- 
oratories of the Department were 
expanded, and several new full- 
time staff members were appoint- 
ed in an effort to broaden the 
scope of the investigative pro- 
gram. In addition to the leukemia 
program, headed by Dr. Kaplan, 
current investigations pertain to 
experimental radiotherapy of 
spontaneous and transplantable 
tumors (Dr. Robert F. Kallman), 
the chromatographic fractiona- 
tion of nucleic acids from normal 
and irradiated tissues (Dr. Kendric 
C. Smith), the influence of nutri- 
tional alterations on radiosensi- 
tivity of mammalian cells in vitro 
(Dr. J. Eugene Robinson), and 
the potentiation of radiosensitivity 
of mammalian cells by chemical 
agents in vitro (Dr. Malcolm A. 
Bagshaw). This diversified pro- 
gram in radiation biology and 
biochemistry, which will soon 
move to much-needed new and 
larger quarters, has also contrib- 
uted to the training of residents in 
modern radiobiologic concepts, 
and serves as the base for a re- 
search training program, sup- 



Linear Accelerator 

ported by a National Cancer Institute Training Grant, for 
residents and postgraduate fellows interested in learn- 
ing research methods and approaches in this field. 

Dr. Robert R. Newell became Emeritus in August, 1957, 
and was succeeded as Chief of the Isotope Division by 
Dr. Joseph P. Kriss, who became a member of the full- 
time faculty on a joint appointment in the Departments 
of Medicine and Radiology. This Division came admin- 
istratively under the jurisdiction of the Department of 
Radiology at that time. The Isotope Unit, which had had 

the dubious distinction of having perhaps the tiniest and 
most cramped quarters in the medical school, will enjoy 
moderately expanded facilities on the campus, including 
space for research laboratories. Meanwhile, new experi- 
mental studies have been launched into certain aspects 
of hematopoiesis, and the tradition of collaborative re- 
search assistance to other groups which Dr. Newell estab- 
lished has been maintained and extended by Dr. Kriss. 





Dr. Holman received his M.D. from Johns Hopkins in 
1918, after having spent three years at Oxford Univer- 
sity as a Rhodes Scholar. In 1926 he returned to Stan- 
ford, where he had previously received his undergradu- 
ate education, to become Professor of Surgery and Execu- 
tive of the department. He remained in this capacity until 
1955, at which time he became an Emeritus Professor of 
Surgery. Besides teaching at Stanford, Dr. Holman has 
served as visiting Professor of Surgery at many of the 
leading medical schools in this country and abroad. He 
has been widely honored for his many basic contribu- 
tions in surgery of the gastro-intestinal and cardiovas- 
cular systems. 



The founder of the first medical school on the Pacific Coast was a young 36-year-old surgeon, who in 1 858 announced as part 
of the curriculum of the new school an operative course on dogs: "Members of the class are permitted to assist in experiments 
upon animals and afterward expected to repeat them under the eye of the Professor of Surgery. This is an exercise above all 
others calculated to school the hand, the nerves and the eye of the pupil, and thereby give him the experience he at once re- 
quires in performing the duties of an operative surgeon,- a feature in medical education, however, almost entirely neglected in 
many other medical schools." 

This was undoubtedly the first serious attempt to train a surgeon not on bloodless cadavers but on living, breathing and bleed- 
ing animals — a life-saving venture that later paved the way for the phenomenal advances in general surgery, and found its 
ultimate fruition in the present-day development and training of the cardiac surgeon. 

Elias Samuel Cooper, born in Ohio in 1 822, graduated at 1 8 years of age from the University of St. Louis Medical School ( now 
long defunct) and began the practice of medicine in Danville, Ohio, the following year. After four years he moved to Peoria, 
lllionois, where he built the first hospital and is credited with having been the first to use chloroform for anesthesia in the Missis- 

ippi Valley. His first paper was entitled "The Effect of Chloro- 
form as an Anesthetic Agent in 79 Surgical Operations." He 
became president of the Knox County Illinois Medical Society 
at 33 years of age. The citizens of Peoria, however, were not 
so enthusiastic about his accomplishments since these included 
certain questionable practices in obtaining material for dis- 
section. Accordingly, young Cooper sought other worlds to 
conquer and after a brief year in European clinics he set out 
for Portland, Oregon, with the avowed purposes of establish- 
ing o medical school on the Pacific Coast, but, through the 
influence of a fellow traveler, Captain James McDonald, he 
landed in San Francisco. Here, his bold, sometimes brilliant, 
surgical activities soon brought public renown — and the 
enmity of his colleagues who resented his brash advertising 
of free operations for patients presenting themselves on 
Wednesday and Saturday afternoons! He successfully sutured 
the fractured olecranon and patella with silver wire, without 
the complication of "laudable pus." Writing home to friends 
in Peoria, he ascribed these successes to the California cli- 
mate, neglecting to mention that he washed his wounds with 
25% alcohol — years before the advent of Listerism! He per- 
formed the first Caesarean operation in California on a mis- 
taken diagnosis of interlocked twins. Although the patient 
recovered, (at a time when 50% died after this operation) 
Cooper had to defend himself against a suit for damages for 
alleged malpractice — the patient being goaded into such 
action by a Dr. Wooster who assisted Cooper at the opera- 
tion! The jury stood 6 for conviction and 6 for acquital and the 

case was never retried! 

He treated refractory club foot by cutting the soft parts on 
the contracted side (as did Phelps of New York 40 years 
later) and held the foot in a splint of sheet lead molded to 
fit. He cured an aneurysm by cutting down on the tumor and 
sewing it up from the outside. Having accidentally torn the 
iliac vein when ligating the external iliac artery for femoral 
aneurysm, he ligated both vein and artery and observed that 
the limb retained its warmth. The man recovered with a serv- 
iceable leg. Cooper then made a series of experiments on the 
dog, in some ligating the vein alone, in others the artery and 
in still others both vessels; and found that the limb remained 
warmer when both vessels were tied than when only one was 
ligated. He devised an instrument for the gradual obliteration 
of the abdominal aorta and used it with some degree of suc- 
cess on the dog. 

In his Operative Story of Goitre, William Stewart Halsted 
credits Cooper with having performed the 8th and 9th opera- 
tions for goitre done in the United States, the first in the year 
1860, (the patient died of Hemorrhage) and the second in 
1861 (the patient recovered) . 

In reporting the first patient Cooper wrote: "Important sur- 
gical operations proving successful, should generally be re- 
ported to the medical world, but those terminating fatally 
should always have the widest range of publicity among the 
profession . . . 

"Case: Mrs. M., aet. 24 years, consulted me on the 3rd of 
October, 1 859, in consequence on an enlargement on the left 


Left to right: Victor Richards, Professor; Loren R. Chandler, Professor; 
Donald E. King, Professor; Carleton Mathewson, Jr., Professor. 

side of the neck, extending from the clavicle to near the chin. 
It was twice the size of a man's fist, and had been over four 
years attaining that size, and during the preceding year in- 
creased very rapidly. It pressed heavily upon the trachea, 
which was considerably flattened. Pulsation of the left carotid 
artery could be distinctly heard on applying the ear over it, 
while the sounds of expiration and inspiration could be as 
clearly heard over it as by applying the ear to the chest. 
There was distinct pulsation nearly 
all over the tumor. In the act of 
swallowing, it arose and fell with 
the motion of the trachea, and 
was much more firmly fixed over 
the region of the trachea than 
over the outer part of the neck. 

"I was convinced that I had 
made a true diagnosis before 
operating, and that it was not an- 
eurysm, but bronchocele, though 
some of my medical friends 
thought it might be the former." 

Cooper was indeed a bold 
operator to attack this highly vas- 
cular tumor of the thyroid. 

In 1857 Cooper reported an 
"Operation for Removing a For- 
eign Body from Beneath the 
Heart" which necessitated remov- 
ing a portion of the fifth, sixth and 
seventh ribs, entering the chest 
and draining a large collection of 
pus (2-3 quarts) in the pleural 
space. The man recovered and 
was restored to normal existence 
— a truly remarkable achieve- 
ment in the days without means to 
locate the exact site of a piece of 
metal projected into the chest 
from an exploding cannon. In de- 
scribing his efforts Cooper wrote: 

"The space immediately above the diaphragm was considered 
the region in which the metal was most likely to be found, 
since the immense amount of suppuration which had taken 
place might have dislodged it, and gravitation carried it down 
to the bottom of the chest. The metal not being found here 
there was no longer any probable opinion to be formed as to 
its whereabouts, and to describe the difficulties of the search 
that followed would be difficult if not impossible. No one can 
have any just conception of the degree of patience required 
to do what was done, save the one who did it. This is not 


spoken boastingly, but it is simply the truth. It is sufficient to 
say that a general exploration of that side of the chest was 
made, and then it was taken by sections, occasionally passing 
through holes in the pleura, which latter appeared to have 
scarcely no normal relations to the surrounding structures, 
touching by lines the entire surface of the parts, and at last 
the sound appeared to encounter something of a metallic 
nature beneath the heart, but the pulsations of that organ 
were so strong against the instrument as to render it difficult 
to settle the matter definitely. At last, however, it became evi- 
dent that the location of the iron was found . . . 

"His subsequent astonishing re- 
covery is attributed to his great 
cheerfulness, good constitution, 
and to the effects of our unparal- 
led climate, in which it appears 
nearly impossible for a patient to 
die with almost any ordinary de- 
gree of injury, provided a reason- 
able share of attention is after- 
wards given him. San Francisco 
has the advantage of every other 
city on the globe, in regard to cli- 
mate, for surgical operations, 
since, if owing to any peculiarity 
of the case, our coast breezes are 
not equally well adapted to all 
the stages of convalescence after 
an operation, it is an easy matter 
to obtain almost any desirable 
change by half a day's easy 
travel, which I think can be said 
of no other city." He was the first 
California booster! 

Dr. Cooper died in 1 862 at the 
early age of 40, only 4 years after 
the launching of his medical 
school, destined to become the 
medical school of Stanford Univer- 
sity. In that time 8 students had 
been graduated, 2 in 1859; 1 in 
I860; and 5 in 1861. In the be- 
ginning the faculty, consisting of 
4 doctors and one lawyer, is said to have met by schedule in 
Dr. Cooper's office and lectured to each other in default of 

Samuel Elias Cooper was indeed an intrepid soul. 

LEVI COOPER LANE (1830-1902) 
Levi Cooper Lane, a nephew of -Samuel Elias Cooper, joined 
the latter's newly founded medical school in 1 859 as Profes- 
sor of Physiology. With the death of Dr. Cooper, the school 
lost its energizing force but continued to graduate doctors 
until 1864 — the total number graduated being 28. In this 


^t ■ 

Left to Right: Roy B. Cohn, Associate Professor; Frank L. Gerbode, 
Associate Professor. 

year Dr. Hugh Hughes Toland launched a new medical school 
destined eventually to become a part of the University of 
California. Enticed by Dr. Toland and attracted by his newly 
erected and commodious building of brick and stone, the 
undergraduate students of the Cooper school went over in a 
body to the new school, accompanied at the students' request 
by Levi Cooper Lane as professor of Physiology and Henry 
Gibbons, formerly Professor of 
Materia Medica and Botany in the 
Cooper School as professor of 
Medicine. The Cooper School then 
ceased its activities. 

For several years, the Toland 
School waxed strong but in 1870, 
Lane and Gibbons withdrew in a 
dispute over new additions to the 
faculty, and re-established the 
Cooper School under its old name 
— the Medical College of the 
Pacific with all the students of the 
Toland School — save one — as 
a nucleus! In the reconstituted 
school, Dr. Lane took the title of 
professor of Surgery, although 
like most of his contemporaries he 
practiced both medicine and sur- 

Dr. Lane was born in Ohio, May 
9, 1830, of English Quaker par- 
entage. He attended Union Col- 
lege, Schenectady, New York, 
from which he later received the 
degrees of M.A. and L.L.D. He was 
graduated from Jefferson Medical 
College in 1851, and spent the 
following 4 years as interne and 

house officer at Ward's Island, New York, followed, in turn, 
by 4 years in the U. S. Navy. While stationed at Chinanagua, 
Nicaragua, he performed his first operation for goitre 

In contrast with his uncle, Lane was a highly educated man, 
and continued to be a student throughout his long life. Six 
nights in the week, he read medicine and did his writing, and 
on the seventh night he read in general literature. He was 
fond of the classics, read Greek, Latin, French, German, and 
Spanish. He translated Billroth's Surgical Pathology for his 
students, and read Hippocrates in the Greek once a year. 

Lane was not as original in his surgery as was Cooper, but 
he worked out vaginal hysterectomy as an original anatomi- 

cal study (1878) not knowing that the operation had been 
done in France in the early years of the 1 9th century. He an- 
ticipated Lannelongue in performing craniectomy for micro- 
cephaly. He planned an elaborate textbook on surgery in 
three volumes, but lived to finish only the first: "Surgery of 
the Head and Neck" based on long personal experience. 

Lane also gained fame as an organizer. In 1882, he 
erected a fine brick building and invited the old faculty to 
join him in reorganizing the old Cooper Medical College in 
honor of his uncle. He subsequently (1888) gave to the 
College a second building equal in size to the first, and in 
1894 he erected Lane Hospital with 150 beds. In 1896 he 
founded the course of Lane Medical Lectures to bring the pro- 
fession of the west into closer contact with the more progres- 
sive minds in medical Europe and Eastern America. Among 
the Lane Lecturers were such celebrated men as Sir William 
Macewen, Sir Michael Foster, Christopher Heath, Sir Clifford 
Allbritt, Sir Charles Ball, William Welch, Reginald Fitz, and 
Vittorio Putti. 

Lane and his faculty labored unselfishly to build up Cooper 
Medical College. In this era of proprietary schools for profit, 
there was no stock, no dividends, and even no salaries. Later 
in conversations with David Starr Jordan, Lane paved the way 
for the absorption of the college by Stanford University, al- 
though the actual amalgamation was not affected until 1909. 
Dr. Lane died in 1902. Inscribed at his direction on a tablet 
in the vestibule of Lane Hospital is the following.- "This build- 
ing, erected by Levi Cooper Lane with moneys earned by him- 
self in his profession, is dedicated to suffering humanity, and 
to the medical profession in the hope that the former may 
here find refuge and relief, and the latter exercise of its hu- 
mane skill and intelligent sym- 
■bbu|^« How well he succeeded is at- 

tested by the number of patients 
who have passed its portals for 
treatment. In the year 1912-1913, 
3,932 patients entered Lane Hos- 
pital and 10,615 patients were 
seen in the Out-patient Clinics. In 
the year 1958-1959, 12,033 pati- 
ents entered the hospital, and 
98,400 patients were treated as 

EMMET RIXFORD (1865-1938) 

Emmet Rixford was born in Bed- 
ford, Quebec, of American parents 
who journeyed to California in 
1 867, where the father became 
one of the state's distinguished 
pioneers. Accompanied by his 
wife and the two-year old Emmet, 
Rixford, the elder, sailed from 
New York in a paddle steamer, 
crossed Nicaragua by canoe and 
donkey, and boarded a second 
paddle steamer for San Francisco. 
Though educated as an engineer, 
he became city editor of the San 
Francisco Bulletin, then partly 
owned by his uncle, Loring Pickering. Interested in horticul- 
ture, he joined the State Department of Horticulture and was 
responsible for bringing into California a number of foreign 
trees, shrubs, and fruits including the Smyrna»fig. 

The son, Emmet, graduated from the University of California 
in engineering in 1 887, but was promptly diverted into medi- 
cine, taking his degree from Cooper Medical College in 1 891 . 
Together with Stanley Stillman, be became Dr. Levi Cooper 
Lane's assistant, later spent a year as resident at the New 
York Hospital for Ruptured and Crippled under William Coley. 
During the summer of 1892 he worked at the Johns Hopkins 
Hospital in the laboratory of William Welch. He was named 
adjunct professor of Surgery at Cooper Medical College in 


Levi Cooper lane 

Left to Right: Philip J. Bailey, Associate Clinical Professor (Anes- 
thesiology); John W. Hanberry, Assistant Professor (Neurosurgery); 
Robert C. McNaught, Clinical Professor (Otorhinolaryngology) ; Dohr- 
mann K. Pischel, Clinical Professor (Ophthalmology). 

1 893 and professor of Surgery in 1 898. When Cooper Medical 
College was taken over in 1909 by Stanford University as its 
medical department, he continued as professor of surgery and 
chief surgeon on the Stanford Service at the San Francisco 
County Hospital, where he served continuously as visiting 
surgeon for 36 years. Resourceful and rapid in operating, 
quick and decisive in judgment, 
equipped with a mind abundantly 
laden with information at his im- 
mediate command, he made a 
brilliant teacher at the operating 

His activity as an operator 
bridged the period between anti- 
septic and aseptic surgery, be- 
tween drainage and non-drain- 
age of wounds, but his facile mind 
quickly accepted and improved 
upon the rapidly advancing devel- 
opments in surgery. His own words 
vividly describe this period: 

"It is interesting to have lived 
through the period of the greatest 
and most rapid development in 
operative surgery the world has 
ever known, for it is overstating 
the case when one claims that in 
the last 15 years of the 19th cen- 
tury and the first 15 of the 20th, 
greater progress was made in 
operative surgery than in all the 
centuries preceding, the direct 
result, of course, of the earlier 
discovery and promulgation of 
general, local, and regional anes- 
thesia, and the gradual percolation and application of the 
principles of antisepsis of Lister and of asepsis of Macewen; I 
say gradual percolation of these principles, for it was difficult 
for the older generation to grasp the ideas and carry out the 
necessary practical details. For example, a very much up-to- 
date surgeon, enthusiastic about antisepsis, would conscienti- 
ously almost scrub the skin off his hands and soak them in 
bichloride, and then, just before making his incision, would 
scratch his ear or blow his nose, adjust his spectacles or wipe 
his moustache and forget to sterilize his hands. I saw another 
surgeon bite off the end of a silk thread as would any seam- 
stress to facilitate threading the needle, and one of our most 
noted local surgeons would hold his knife in his mouth when 

using other instruments in an operation. Practically speaking, 
then, the world had to wait for a new generation of surgeons 
to grow up before an aseptic technic could become automatic 
on a large scale." 

Rixford early insisted upon a bacteriological and patho- 
logical study of his operative specimens, and was himself an 
excellent surgical pathologist. He was one of the first on this 
coast to employ the x-ray and with it to locate accurately, 
because of his engineering training, a foreign body in the 
brain permitting its successful removal by his associate, Dr. 
Stanley Stillman. His engineering training made him particu- 
larly adept also in the under- 
standing of fractures and disloca- 
tions, and a number of his papers 
delt in original manner with the 
mechanics of the production and 
treatment of the greenstick, buck- 
ling, torsion and flexion fractures. 
Quick to recognize in one of his 
early patients from the San Joa- 
quin Valley that he was dealing 
with an unusual infection, he sent 
material to Professors Welch and 
Gilchrist of Johns Hopkins for fur- 
ther intensive study, which led 
subsequently to the recognition 
and description (by Rixford and 
Gilchrist in the first volume of the 
Johns Hopkins Hospital Reports, 
1896) of a new disease, cocci- 
diodal granuloma, also known as 
the San Joaquin Valley disease. 

In his later years, the State In- 
dustrial Accident Commission re- 
lied greatly upon his judgment in 
the troublesome problems of in- 
dustrial surgery, and he was often 
called as an expert witness. He 
rarely failed to impress the jury 
as to the correctness of his view. 
A lifelong and paramount interest was the Lane Medical 
Library, the completeness and present position of which as 
one of the great medical libraries of the country are entirely 
due to his efforts. It was he who prevailed upon his classmates 
in 1 891 to purchase a two-volume atlas of skin lesions, which 
really formed the nucleus for the later development of the 
present library. It was he who journeyed to the Surgeon Gen- 
eral's Library on several occasions, found duplicates of im- 
porant volumes, and was permitted to box and send them to 
San Francisco. It was through his perspicacity and friendship 
with Dr. Jacobi of New York, that he secured over 28,000 
volumes of the early medical journals and greatly prized 
Paris theses which were found duplicated when the New York 


Left to Right: Henry M. Weyrauch, Clinical Professor (Urology); Leon- 
ard G. Dobson, Clinical Professor; Waiter E. Heck, Assistant Professor. 

Academy and New York Hospital combined their libraries. 
The Lane Library, though named at his suggestion in honor of 
his chief, will be an enduring monument to his memory. 

Although a distinguished scholar in his chosen field, Dr. 
Rixford's great charm lay in his extraordinary breadth of 
knowledge outside his professional calling. He was an au- 
thority on land snails and possessed one of the most complete 

collections in Califor- 
nia. His achievements 
as an indefatigable 
mountain climber are 
forever commemorated 
by the designation of 
a 13,000-foot peak in 
the Kearsarge Range 
of the Southern Sierras 
as Mt. Rixford. His rep- 
utation as an authority 
on rose culture was 
nation-wide. As skip- 
per on the Sloop 
"Annie" brought 
around the Horn in the 
seventies, he won nu- 
merous races on San 
Francisco Bay, and 
was at one time desig- 
nated Commodore of the Fleet. 

His was an unusually active and useful life, full of zest for 
enjoyment, mingled with constant devoted service to his fel- 
low men. He died on January 2, 1938, of coronary throm- 
bosis, four days following an operation upon the bladder. 


Described at his death as "California's best beloved sur- 
geon" Stanley Stillman was born in Sacramento, California, 

August 23, 1861, the son of Dr. J. D. B. Stillman, pioneer 
physician and surgeon who operated the first hospital in the 
state of California. After some preliminary courses at the 
University of California, Stanley graduated from Cooper Med- 
ical College in 1889. In 1891 he and Emmet Rixford were 
made assistants to Dr. Lane. He remained on the teaching 
staff and in 1898 was made Professor of Surgery. In 1909 
when Stanford University took 
over Cooper Medical College and 
organized its medical faculty, 
Stillman was made Professor of 
Surgery, and executive head of 
the Department, a position he held 
until 1924, when at the age of 65 
he was made Professor Emeritus. 
He and Rixford were intimate as- 
sociates for over 40 years, work- 
ing in the same hospitals and med- 
ical schools. Rixford's sympathetic 
appraisal of Stillman at his death 
is a beautiful tribute: 

"Stillman's nature was a com- 
plex of qualities not easily to find 
duplicated — proud, independent, 
critical, even irascible; yet kindly, 
sensitive as a woman, sympathetic 
to the point of tears in the pres- 
ence of a pathetic stiuation. As a 
surgeon he was not merely com- 
petent and skillful, but was gifted 
with an extraordinary human un- 
derstanding, as honest, too, with 
himself as in his professional rela- 
tions. He was an acute observer 
and apt to be as much interested 
in the personality of his patient as 
in his malady. As a teacher, he 
had a great knack of painting 
word pictures which have become 


almost proverbial in his students' memories. His students 
adored him, even when savagely critical, as he sometimes 
was, for they could not but rise to his sterling honesty and his 
uncanny instinct which dictates his action and his words." 

Stillman wrote but little, but what he did write was pithily 
presented and to the point. 

In an early paper (1902), he discussed abdominal drain- 
age, and at a time when indis- 
criminate use of drains was almost 
universal, he advocated measures 
which were revolutionary in the 
practice of that day. (Yates did 
not publish his classic article on 
"An Experimental Study of the 
Local Effects of Peritoneal Drain- 
age" until December 1905 (S.G. 
& O., V. 1, p. 473). Stillman 
stated with reference to appen- 

"When there have been little 
or no adhesions formed, but there 
is extensive general peritonitis, or 
when the free fluid in the perito- 
neum has a distinctly foetid odor, 
I first remove the appendix, wash 
out the abdominal cavity thor- 
oughly with warm salt solution 
and use no drain, even at the site 
of the appendix, but close the ab- 
domen tightly trusting to the abil- 
ity of the peritoneum to handle 
the diffuse infection in its own 
way — and I try to avoid em- 
barrassing or impeding the natu- 
ral drainage by inserting masses 
of gauze, tubes or anything else 
around which adhesions may 

"The great danger of general 
septic peritonitis lies in the exist- 
ence of a focus from which is 
furnished a continuous supply of 
organisms and toxins, and our first duty is to eliminate such 
a source of supply, whether it be a gangrenous or per- 
forated intestine, an infected blood clot or an abscess in 
the abdominal wall communicating with the peritoneum." 
In another early paper he prophetically stated, "Con- 
trary to general teaching, infants stand anesthetics and 
surgical procedures as well as if not better than adults." 
At a time when medical practitioners were want to delay 
operation until every other means had been exhausted, 
this was an original and encouraging attitude. In this con- 
nection he observed, "An exploratory laparotomy may be 
called for and will do the infant no harm if done early, but 
a successful operation may be no good if done later!" 

Other papers included a plea for early operation in 
hypertrophic stenosis of the pylorus in infants for which he 
performed a gastroduodenostomy. (Rammstedt described 
his operation in 1912 (Med. Klin. Berlin, 1912, V. 1702) ). 
"There is less to fear from a timely operation than from 
timorous delay" observed Stillman. 

In partial excisions of the lower jaw for carcinoma he 
advocated and used with great success a silver wire truss 
originally devised by John B. Murphy. One of Stillman's 
patients retained the truss 24 years when, following a kick 
in the face, it had to be removed. 

In 1917 he presented a scholarly review of tumors of 
t-he kindey, including 7 cases of his own. 

5 A 

'-■-- YY \h% -head- mirror 

And in 1918 appeared a review of his experiences in resection of the large bowel 
at the rectosigmoid junction. 

Stillman was well ahead of his time in providing only doctor anesthetists in the 
operating room when most clinics on the eastern seaboard were still relying on nurse 
anesthetists. Dr. Caroline Palmer, a graduate of Cooper Medical College, served as 
chief anesthetist at Lane Hospital from 1909-1937 assisted by two other doctor 

Stanford University may take justifiable pride in the surgical heritage provided by 
these courageous and skillful pioneers in western surgery. 




Dr. Alway is Dean of Stanford Medical School and has been very active 
in organizing the "new" medical school on the campus. He received a 
BS in 1 937, an MB in 1 939, and an MD in 1 940, all from the University 
of Minnesota. He interned at the Jersey City Medical Center and then 
went back to Minnesota for his residency training in Pediatrics. Follow- 
ing this training he was at the University of Utah for six years, becoming 
an Associate Professor before coming to Stanford in 1949. Dr. Alway 
left to be Professor of Pediatrics at the University of Colorado in 1953- 
1955, but returned to Stanford as Professor and Executive until he was 
made Dean in 1957. 



This coming autumn the first class in the new Stanford Medical School will initiate the second half-century of our 
school. Stanford's medical graduates in the first fifty years established a sound reputation. We have history to build on. 
In the next half-century we have history to make. What is the prospect before us? 

With the increasing rate of medical progress, the accumulated facts and techniques have grown beyond the prac- 
tical grasp of the busy practitioner, let alone the medical novitiates in their undergraduate years. As medicine has pro- 
gressed from the simply descriptive to increasingly better definition of disease processes and syndromes — as it has simil- 
arly progressed from non-specific to specific therapy — similarly medicine has progressed from the gross to the micro- 
scopic to the submicroscopic on to the ultramicroscopic. Now it is taking its first tentative steps toward the realm of the 
submolecular — toward a subatomic basis for the understanding life processes. 

Obviously, then, what was once good enough can no longer suffice. A plan of medical education which had be- 

come encumbered more by demand than by design can 
not best produce medical graduates able to continue their 
medical education once out in practice, confronted with 
its demands plus increasingly complex medical knowl- 
edge. Accordingly, the new Stanford plan of medical ed- 
ucation was developed by the faculty to emphasize the 
essential unity of the basic sciences and medicine as hu- 
man biology, providing principles and basic understand- 
ing more than a mass of facts and techniques. This pre- 
paration should lead to increasingly effective graduate 
education, there providing facts and techniques in areas 
of specialization. 

The building of the new Medical School on the campus 
has facilitated re-orientation of the school around the 
University rather than the Hospital, making possible in- 

creased intellectual exchange not only with the physical 
and biological sciences but with the social sciences as 
well. Medicine's preoccupation with the prevention of 
death must be tempered by a concern for the quality of 

The seven buildings constituting the new compounds of 
the Palo Alto-Stanford University Medical Center pro- 
vide hospital, ambulatory clinic and laboratory facilities 
for the clinical years as well as laboratories and class- 
rooms for the pre-clinical departments for undergraduate 
teaching. Yet to be provided are the new research space 
for Anatomy, Microbiology, and Physiology, as well as 
in-patient facilities for Psychiatry and on-campus student 

Training and research in the field of Rehabilitation will 



Left to right: Lowell A. Rantz, 
Professor of Medicine and Asso- 
ciate Dean; Lyman M. Stowe, 
Associate Professor of Obstetrics 
and Gynecology and Associate 

be greatly strengthened through the geographic and 
functional associations of the Divisions of Rehabilitation, 
Physical Therapy, Physical Medicine, Speech Pathology 
and Audiology with Otolaryngology, Orthopedics, Neu- 
rology and Neuro-surgery. 

Our opportunities and responsibilities as a private med- 
ical school will not be met if we are content merely to 
teach what is and not seek further — if we train only in 
established patterns, not exploring new ways adapted to 
scientific, social and economic change — if we aspire only 
to produce technically competent practitioners, ignoring 
the education of men and women truly prepared to con- 
tinue more easily their education after education. 

The challenge is great. If we are to make our proper 
contribution and Justify our place in the University we 
will meet the challenge. 

The goal of the Medical School may be considered to 
be the development and continued adaptation of a plan 
of medical education, with the necessary attendant fac- 
ulty and facilities, propaedeutic to medicine, leading to 
graduates not solely practitioners or academicians, but 
truly doctors — learned men and women deserving of this 
advanced academic title, teachers albeit unwittingly and 
properly able to be duly licensed to practice the healing 


H H 

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3 i^Ml 


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" % 

CLASS OF 1959 

WILMER C. ALLEN, Las Vegas, Nevada . . . 
Alpha Omega Alpha, Nu Sigma Nu . . . In- 
ternship: Los Angeles County Hospital, 

KEITH F. ANDERSON, Mt. Vernon, Washing- 
ton . . . Phi Rho Sigma , . . Internship: Detroit 
Receiving Hospital. 

MUHAMAD ASWAQ, Fiji Islands . 
Palo Aifo- Stanford Medical Center. 


CHARLES E. BASYE, Burlingame . . . Intern- 
ship: Minneapolis General Hospital. 

SIDNEY B. BELLINGER, Palo Alto . . . Nu Sigma 
Nu . . . Internship: U. S. Naval Hospital, 

MARSDEN S. BLOIS, Atherton . . . Internship: 
Palo Alto-Stanford University Medical Center. 

MICHAEL H. BRAVERMAN, Los Angeles . . . 
Internship: Kings County Hospital Center, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

ternship: Santa Clara County Hospital. 

Los Angeles County Hospital. 


JAMES D. COLEMAN, Long Beach . . . Intern- 
ship: Los Angeles County Hospital. 

JOHN T. DIFFERDING, Richmond . . . Intern- 
ship: University of California Hospitals. 

RALPH B. DILLEY, San Diego . . . Alpha Omega 
Alpha, Alpha Kappa Kappa . . . Internship: 
Boston City Hospital. 

FREDERICK A. DITTMER, Scottsdale, Arizona 
. . . Nu Sigma Nu . . . Internship: Mary Flet- 
cher Hospital, Burlington, Vermont. 

MARVIN ENGEL, Pomona . . . Class President, 
second year . . . Internship: Philadelphia Gen- 
eral Hospital. 

WARREN W. EPINETTE, Los Angeles ... In- 
ternship: Los Angeles County Hospital. 

RICHARD M. FREEMAN, Merced . . . Alpha 
Kappa Kappa . . . Internship: Palo Alto-Stan- 
ford University Medical Center. 

MYRON GANANIAN, Menlo Park . . . Class 
President, third year . . . Internship: Meadow- 
brook Hospital, Hempstead, New York. 

STEPHEN R. GOSPE, San Francisco . . . Intern- 
ship: Philadelphia General Hospital. 

MELVYN D. HALL, Belmont 
Santa Clara County Hospital. 


ROBERT D. HESTORFF, Berkeley ... Phi Rho 
Sigma . . . Internship: Los Angeles County 

RICHARD H. HORN, Santa Monica . . . Class 
President, first year . . . Internship: Harbor 
General Hospital, Torrance, California. 

MARTIN C. JOHNSON, Denver . . . Nu Sigma 
Nu . . . Internship: Palo Alto-Stanford Univ- 
ersity Medical Center. 

ROBERT L. JOHNSON, San Francisco . . . Nu 
Sigma Nu . . . Internship: University Hospitals, 
Madison, Wisconsin. 

SALLY H. KAUFMANN, San Francisco ... In- 
ternship: Kaiser Foundation Hospital, San 
Francisco, California. 

FOSTER F. KEENE, Santa Barbara . . . Intern- 
ship: Brooke Army Hospital, San Antonio, 

HUNTER L. LITTLE, Oxford, Mississippi ... In- 
ternship: Bellevue Hospital Center, New York, 
New York. 

REY V. LUCE, Santa Rosa . . . Internship: Akron 
City Hospital, Akron, Ohio. 

JOHN G. McFEE, Seattle . . . Alpha Omega 
Alpha, Alpha Kappa Kappa . . . Internship: 
Philadelphia General Hospital. 

WILLIAM G. McGEHEE, Fresno . . . Alpha 
Kappa Kappa . . . Internship: Los Angeles 
County Hospital. 

MARVIN J. McKENNEY, San Diego ... Phi 
Rho Sigma . . . Internship: Los Angeles County 

JAMES C. MICKLE, San Francisco . . . Intern- 
ship: Queen's Hospital, Honolulu, T.H. 

JAMES S. MILLER, Alameda . 
San Francisco General Hospital. 


ROBERT E. MILTON, Redding . . . Internship: 
Brooke Army Hospital, San Antonio, Texas. 

JOHN R. MITCHELL, San Carlos . 
Philadelphia General Hospital. 


ROBIN R. NICHOLS, Woodland, California . . . 
Alpha Kappa Kappa . . . Internship: Cook 
County Hospital, Chicago, Illinois. 


BOYD A. NIE5, Orange, California . . . Alpha 
Omega Alpha . . . Internship: University of 
California Hospital, Los Angeles. 

JOHN R, PACIULLI, Palo Alto . . . Alpha Kappa 
Kappa . . . Internship: Cook County Hospital, 
Chicago, Illinois. 

JAMES H. PINGREE, Sherman Oaks . . . Alpha 
Omega Alpha, Nu Sigma Nu . . . Student 
Body President . . . Internship: King County 
Hospital, Seattle, Washington. 

REESE E. POLESKY, Beverly Hills 
ship: Emory University Hospital. 


GILBERT J. ROBERTS, Pomona . . , Nu Sigma 
Nu . . . Internship: Minneapolis General Hos- 

MARGARETA K. SAINIO, Helsinki, Finland . . . 
Resident, Palo Alto-Stanford University Med- 
ical Center. 


DUDLEY O. SCOTT, JR., Los Angeles 
ternship: Santa Clara County. 


GERALD L. SEVERIN, Atherton . . . Nu Sigma 
Nu . . . Internship: Minneapolis General Hos- 

CARL L. SMITH, Geyserville . . . Internship: 
Lankenau Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa. 

GRACE G. SMITH, Menlo Park . . . Internship: 
Lankenau Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa. 

ROBERT W. SONNTAG, Los Angeles ... In- 
ternship: Minneapolis General Hospital. 

PAUL E. STRANDJORD, Minneapolis . . . Nu 
Sigma Nu . . . Class President, fourth year . . . 
Internship: University of Minnesota Hospitals. 

HAROLD B. STRAUCH, Sacramento . . . Alpha 
Omega Alpha, Alpha Kappa Kappa ... In- 
ternship: Philadelphia General Hospital. 

YASUO TAKENAKA, Honolulu, T.H. ... In- 
ternship: Grace-New Haven Community Hos- 

H. STEPHENS THOMAS, Phoenix, Arizona . . . 
Alpha Omega Alpha, Nu Sigma Nu . . . Intern- 
ship: Philadelphia General Hospital. 

KENNETH E. THOMAS, Northfield, Illinois . . . 
Alpha Omega Alpha . . . Internship: University 
of Minnesota Hospitals. 

NICHOLAS R. TRUEBLOOD, San Marino . . . 
Alpha Omega Alpha, Nu Sigma Nu . . . In- 
ternship: Los Angeles County Hospital. 

ANTHONY M. WOLFE, San Luis Obispo . . . 
Internship: Denver General Hospital. 

ternship: Detroit Receiving Hospital. 





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Barton K. Adams 
Klamath Falls, Oregon 
Walter F. Alexander 
Thomas F. Anders 
San Francisco 
Ben H. Anderson 
Minneapolis, Minn. 

Denny S. Anspach 
Riverside, Illinois 
Richard R. Babb 
Wilmington, Ohio 
Cleve B. Baker 
San Francisco 
Crittenden E. Brookes 
San Francisco 

Cooley Butler, II 

Los Angeles 

Roger V. Cadol 


Harvey E. Christensen 

Racine, Wise. 

Keith E. Cohn 

San Francisco 

Charles E. Comfort 
San Mateo 
Ernest A. Dernberg 
Beverly Hills 
Evelyn R. Esola 
San Francisco 
Melvin D. Flamm 
San Francisco 


Jay B. Harless 
Los Angeles 
Frank M. Hembrow 
Mountain View 
Richard Henke 
Lowell M. Hill 
San Francisco 

Jack J. Katzow 
Milwaukee, Wise. 
Irving I, Kessler 

Dorchester, Mass. 
George H. Koenig 
Palo Alto 

Franklin D. Loffer, Jr. 
San Marino 
Charles M. Louden 
Long Beach 
Russell D. Martin 
Colron, Calif. 
William E. Matthews 
Klamath Falls, Oregon 
John I. Maurer 
Madison, Wise. 
James D. Northway 
Palo Alto 

Jack Noyes 

South Bend, Indiana 

John M. Palmer 


Diane Joanne Paluszek 

Chicago, Illinois 

Truman D. Plainer 


Norman M. Rich 

Ray, Arizona 

Thomas Rykoff 

Beverly Hills 

Fredrick J. Seil 

San Francisco 

Robert J. Seymour 

San Marino 

Frank E. Speizer 

San Francisco 

Robert G. Webster, Jr. 


Philip R. Westbrook 


Dennis H. Wetterholm 


Gregor M. Wilkinson 

Pacific Palisades 


Still There? 

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Stephen Z. Colodny 
Greenfield, Mass. 
William J. Daily 
John J. DH ley 
San Diego 
Adebayo J. Dina 
Lagos, Nigeria 

Christian E. von Doepp 
Fairborn, Ohio 
David E. Dozier, Jr. 
David E. Edson 
Houston, Texas 
Ralph E. GianeMy 
Medford, Mass. 

William M. Abbott 
San Francisco 
Pauline Anderson 
Santa Barbara 
Jerome C. Beatie 
Creighton G. Bellinger 

Stephen W. Bennett 
Palo Alto 
John A. Bruner 
Tucson, Arizona 
Robert O. Christiansen 
San Marino 
William H. Christie 
Los Altos 

DeWitt B. Gifford 


Harry R. Glatstein, Jr. 

Muscatine, Iowa 

Alan H. Goodman 

San Diego 

Joel L. Herskowitz 

Forest Hills, N.Y. 

Malcolm J. Hoffs 
New York, N.Y. 
David Hunt 
Nashville, Tennessee 
William S. Irvin 
El Paso, Texas 
Walter L. Jensen, Jr. 
Wauwatosa, Wise. 

Donald R. Johnson 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
Paul K. Johnson 
Casper, Wyoming 
Laurence J. Logan 
Olympic, Wash. 
Truman L. Long 
Los Angeles 

Roger C. Lukes 


Philip I. McNamee 

New York, N.Y. 

William C. Mentzer, Jr. 

Palo Alto 

Bernard W. Nelson 

San Diego 

Stephen B. Nelson 
San Mateo 
John M. Newel 

Else B. Peters 
Palo Alto 
Roberta Peters 


John K. Petrolli 
Redwood City 
Ronald C. Pillsbury 
Long Beach 
William W. Pope 
San Francisco 
Donald J. Prolo 
San Jose 

James W. Ralph 
Tulsa, Oklahoma 
Arbe J. Rowan 
Fostoria, Ohio 
Ernest Ruiz 
Roger L. Ryan 

Ali A. Seif 


Robert Sharp 

San Francisco 

John M. Simpson, Jr. 

Salt Lake City 

William W. Spore, Jr. 

San Diego 

Shuichiro M. Sugimura 

Maisaka, Shizuoka-Ken r Japan 

Joyce H. Tanno 

Phoenix, Arizona 

Richard W. Warren 


Augusuts A. White, III 

Memphis, Tennessee 

Jordan R. Wilbur 
Redwood City 
Edmund E. Wilkins, Jr. 
Nelson A. Wivel 
Portales, New Mexico 
Kou-Ping Yu 
Manila, Philippines 


William E. Anspach 

Palo Alto 

Lawrence S. Barnetf 


Gholom R. Behbehenian 

Tehran, Iran 

Leslie Belsher 

Palo Alto 

Morton P. Berenson 
Portland, Oregon 
Roderick Biswell 
Baker, Oregon 
Philip Blodgef 

Edmund D. Butler 

Sara Christensen 
James Clever 

Lawrence Cohn 
San Francisco 
Henry F. Davis 

Donald B. Doty 


Joseph G. Ellis 


Patricia Engasser 


Anthony H. Engelbrecht 


Donald R. Foster 

Edward H. Furukawa 
Honolulu, T.H. 
Charles J. Gibson 
Lincoln, Nebraska 
Henry R. Hilgard 
Palo Alto 

Edward P. Hoffman 
San Mateo 
Charles C. Jenkins 
Paul H. Jewett 
Menlo Park 
John P. Jones 
Long Beach 

Frieda Juckheim 

Grenada, Miss. 

Leland E. Kellerhouse, Jr. 

San Diego 

Donald L. King 

San Francisco 

Leonard Klay 

South Gate 


James D. Klingbeil 
Madison, Ohio 
Edward Krehbiel 
Long Beach 
Haruo Kusamoto 
Mountain View 
Alan T. C. Lee 
Honolulu, T.H. 

Richard S. Loft 


David J. Messinger 

San Mateo 

Ira H. Monosson 

Los Angeles 

Robert Z. Morris 


Demosthenes Pappagianis 

Chula Vista 

Richard K. Park 

Los Angeles 

Gwyn P. Parry 


Ronald S. Poze 

Palo Alto 

Maurice Rappaport 


Stuart A. Reynolds 


Larry Richardson 

Los Angeles 

Robert F. Rider 

Yuma, Arizona 

Thomas J. Scully 


Eric T. Smith 

San Diego 

Joseph N. Smith 


Laura Thurston 

Albuquerque, New Mexico 


Edward D. Titus 


Shirly Wang 


Robert L. Weinmann 

Newark, New Jersey 

Richard Wold 


Carol Anne Yap 
Honolulu, T.H. 
David A. Zlotnick 
New York, N.Y. 


J! i S 

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Gerald R. Bassett 

Roland M. Atkinson Jr 

Robert L. Barth 


Sherman E. Butler 

George W. H. Bailey 

William T. Foster 

Sydney H. Bergman 

Gregory G. Fouts 

William E. Chapman, III 

Donald M. Mason 

Richard C. Gross 

James M. Guernsey 


Allan D. Nelson 

Phyllis Bartlett 

Donald W. Payne 

Larry Kedes 

Elizabeth M. Richards 

Victor R. Lavis 

John Richards, IV 

James McKnight 

Fred Rosenthal 

Louis W. Roloff 

Joseph L. Shaw 

Marilynne Swanson 

Herbert A. Stier 

Joseph M. VanDeWater 

Walter J. Wilcox 



Dorothy Benton 
San Francisco 
Ann Dobson 
San Francisco 
Sally Hathaway 
San Jose 

Marilyn Hill 
Betty Jordan 
Sharon King 
San Francisco 


Betsy Noble 
Margaret O'Connor 

Suzanne Owsley 
San Marino 

Sheila Perkins 
Santa Rosa 
Sandra Prince 

Charlotte Severin 
San Francisco 

Susan Smith 
San Jose 
Jeanette Word 
Santa Maria 



Carolyn Burchell 


Rose Fadel-ldriss 


Mary Anne Gundershaug 


Patricia Helsfen 
Judith Johnson 
Tacoma, Washington 
Judy Kinseil 


Pauline Komnenich 

Warren, Arizona 

Amanda Mathews 


Jane McKenzie 


Patricia McMillan 


1 fSSn 




Joan Nolan 

San Francisco 

Sara Olsen 


Christine Tedesco 

Albuquerque, New Mexico 

Lynn Thorsteinson 




Lidijo Ulehin 
Riga, Latvia 
Elisabeth Valinga 
Frances Weston 
San Mateo 



Virginia Claussen 
Carol Conger 
Mill Valley 
Ann Conway 
Clovis, New Mexico 

Kay Gillis 

Judith Harvey 
Phoenix, Ariz. 
Nancy Iverson 
Santa Rosa 


Carol Laughlin 
Jane Mathis 
El Toro 

Patricia Merisuo 
Palos Verdes Estates 
Nancy Nakagawa 
Los Angeles 

Ruth Ann Overman 
Sandrilee Peto 
Linda Poppitt 
San Francisco 
Helen Puccinelli 

Cornelia Rogers 
Arlington, Virginia 
Frances Schutt 

Kathryn Sickler 
Tucson, Ariz. 
Elissa Steelman 
Milwaukee, Wise. 


V: - 

Nancy Todd 


Suzanne Voge 


Janet Weidenbach 

Santa Barbara 

Ruth Young 
Toni Zinn 
Milwaukee, Wise. 

Grace Ringressy 
R.N., M.S. 

» ... 



Delphi Alvig 
Barbara Beauchamp 
Mary Lou VarjdeWater 
Delores Crosetti 
Sally Knapp 
Kathryn DeWayne 
Dorris Foster 
Martha Hallin 
Valerie Jelenfy 
Diane Jenan 
JoAnn Johnson 
Sharon Kinch 
Carol King 
Louise Lau 
Phyllis Lungren 
Carol Meeks 
Nancy Otto 
Charlotte Rymar 
LaVonne Saladin 
Joanne Savage 
Donna Sieck 
Carol Ann Smith 
Janet Smith 
Sandra Tanke 
Mary Weideli 
Ragnhild Westly 
Robin Wurzburg 

Carol Yoshioka 


Loree Alexander 
Doris Behneman 
Gwinene Bennett 
Barbara Blake 
Shirley Brodeur 
Nancy Schumacher 
Sharon Forte 
Margo Glatt 
Lois Henke 
Katherine Kruger 
Mary Murane 
Sharlene Spaans 
Elizabeth Sunblad 
Betty Webb 


Nancy Bernasconi 
Linda Collins 
Mary Anne Dolen 
Catherine Holthouse 
Jean Macpherson 
Sharon McMullen 
Betty Anne Mathewson 
Margaret Rightmyer 
Joan Treher 



Dr. Chandler received both his A.B. and M.D. degrees 
from Stanford. Following graduation from medical school 
in 1923, he continued at Lane Hospital for his intern- 
ship and residency training. In 1925, be became a Clini- 
cal Instructor in Surgery, and remained in this capacity 
until his appointment as Dean of the School of Medicine 
in 1933. During his 20 years as Dean, Dr. Chandler 
supervised Stanford's growth as it became one of the 
leading medical centers in the country. In 1953, he re- 
turned to his duties as Professor of Surgery; he has con- 
tinued to teach since that time. 


Although an Armistice was declared in November, 1918 
universities did not get back into what resembled a normal I 
bers of the student body had been off to war and most of th 
ford Naval Reserve unit made up of members of the faculty o 
land and those of us in the School of Medicine returned' from 
so suddenly interrupted in April, 1917. ! came back to comp 

The student body was limited to 25 students in each clas 
dividuals. Tuition was $50 each quarter. Before the war we 
Anatomy and had been impressed and generally aided and 
W. Meyer and McFarlane in the Department of Anatomy an 

teachers made lasting imprints on our professional be- 
havior. Edwin W. Schultz arrived in the autumn of 1919 
and the following year succeeded Dr. Manwaring as 
Executive of the Department of Bacteriology and Experi- 
mental Pathology. This was the beginning of several 
changes through the decade, and, although postwar 
economy in the United States was booming, business was 
expanding and the stock market got higher by the day, 
there was a sense of uncertainty in the air at the medical 

We all moved to San Francisco for our sixth quarter. In 
San Francisco we met another staff of great teachers, 
such men as A. W. Hewlett, A. B. Spalding, William Op- 
huls, Stanley Stillman, Emmett Rixford Sr., John Cowan, 
Tom Addis, Harold K. Faber, Ned Sewall, Harry Wyckoff, 
James Dillon, A. B. McKee and, certainly, I must include 
Carolyn Palmer who taught us anesthesiology. We found 
radiology developing in the Department of Medicine and 
known as the Division of Actinography. This, however, 
was changed in 1920, when W. Edward Chamberlin and 
Robert R. Newell came to Stanford as full-time radio- 

Classes were increased from 25 to 50 in the autumn of 
1920. Teaching during the third and fourth years was 

and the shooting in World War I stopped at that time the 
ife until the autumn of 1 91 9. Many of the faculty and mem- 
em did not return until the year after the Armistice. The Stan- 
f Stanford Medical School returned from Strathpeffer, Scot- 
various branches of the Armed Services to finish our studies 
lete my sophomore year. 

s of medicine at that time but ours was now down to 22 in- 
had spent the 861 clock hours required in the Department of 
abetted by such teachers as Robert E. Swain in chemistry, A. 
d Clara Stoltenberg in neurophysiology. All of these great 

done jointly in the outpatient department and in the 
wards at Lane Hospital and the San Francisco Hospital. 
Most of our clinical bedside work, what might be called 
the clinical clerkship, was done during the fourth year. It 
is interesting to recall that students during that period had 
98/2 required hours a week scheduled during the junior 
year. Surgical pathology, along with fractures, was 
taught in the Department of Surgery by Dr. Frank Blais- 
dell. Stanford Hospital had been opened in 1917 and 
was going full blast. The country's economy was good so 
the hospitals and clinics were full. Outpatient visits num- 
bered from 130,000 to 145,000 and Lane Hospital had 
more than 6,500 admissions per year. All of this was for 
the benefit of medical students and the interns. The intern 
situation was rather amazing in view of the present na- 
tionwide intern and residency training program. In 1920 
there were 6 interns, 3 senior interns and 2 house physi- 
cians. This constituted the entire resident staff of Stanford 
University Hospitals. We took care of all of the patients 
in the dispensary and the teaching wards and were assist- 
ants to the chiefs of our various services with their private 
patients in Stanford Hospital. 

It seems that changes never stopped during the Twen- 
ties. Tuition fees for medical students were increased to 


$85 a quarter in 1921. George Barnett, affectionately 
known as "Uncle George" to students and graduates 
alike, returned full-time to the Department of Medicine in 
1924, where he had charge of the Department of Medi- 
cine's activities in the San Francisco Hospital until his 
retirement in 1949. In 1922 residents were added to the 
Lane Hospital staff, one each in medicine, surgery, pedi- 
atrics and obstetrics. This was the beginning of a resi- 
dency training program which then included a year of 
internship, a second year generally known as a senior 
internship and one year of residency. Nearly all of the 
trainees at Stanford taking such graduate training affili- 
ated themselves with older experienced men in one way 
or another for a period of at least 2 or 3 years after leav- 
ing the hospitals. This same year the new nurses' resi- 
dence was opened on Clay Street, a beautiful building 
filled with beautiful nurses. 

In 1921 Dr. Paul J. Hazlik was appointed Executive of 
the Department of Pharmacology and promptly reorgan- 
ized and expanded both the teaching and research. His 
excellence in teaching, rigid discipline and tremendous 
energy soon won him the title of "The Iron Duke" as well 
as the respect and admiration of all in the medical school. 
Dr. S. W. Hewlett died rather suddenly in 1925. He was 
replaced by Dr. Arthur Bloomfield, who arrived in 1926. 
Dr. Stanley Stillman became Professor Emeritus in 1925 
and was promptly replaced as Executive of our Surgical 
Department by Dr. Emile Holman. A Department of Public 
Health and Preventive Medicine was created for the first 
time in 1925 with Ernest C. Dickson as its chief, and in 
1928 Pediatrics was separated from the Department of 
Medicine and made an independent department under 
the direction of Harold K. Faber. 

During this time we had a faculty committee to review 
the curriculum. This seems a perennial occurrence in medi- 
cal schools and obviously does some good but the main 
changes in the curriculum revision in the mid-twenties was 
to establish a full-time clerkship during the third year and 
assign the medical students to the outpatient department 
and study of the medical and surgical specialties during 
their fourth year. The faculty also created a considerable 
amount of "free time" for the students amounting to 200 
hours during the four year course. It is to be noted that all 
students at Stanford Medical School also had to write a 
thesis under the direction of one of the executives of our 
medical school departments before being accepted for 

Changes taking place in the schedule of students' time, 
the addition of new members to our faculty and the pro- 
motion of many others, together with the increased stu- 
dent body, now numbering 50 students in each class, 
made it mandatory that the work of the clinical years be 
divided pretty equally between the wards at the San 
Francisco Hospital and the smaller wards and the out- 
patient dispensary at Lane Hospital. However, all of these 
changes were improvements in our teaching program and 
created new interests and activities in research, both 
laboratory and clinical. The surgical experimental labora- 
tory was expanded by Dr. Holman and attracted students 
and graduates alike. Doctors Addis, Bloomfield and Faber 
all had guinea pigs, white mice, and Russian rats all over 
the medical school building. Dr. Ernest Dickson already 
was playing with coccidiomycosis. Investigations of a sin- 
gle problem by several different departments became 
common for the first time at Stanford. 

In 1927 the University administration, a planning com- 
mittee from the medical school and a prominent firm of 
architects made plans for a new medical school facility in 

San Francisco. This was to include a new building for the 
outpatient dispensary, a women's hospital, a children's 
hospital and a new addition to house a Department of 
Psychiatry and, also, a special unit for orthopedic surgery. 
Building plans called for $3,750,000 for construction. 
Enthusiasm ran high, all we needed was money. The 
search for funds continued into the Thirties, but more of 
this later. 

In recalling these individuals and happenings in the 
early years following the first World War, 1 am impressed 
by the numerous changes in the medical school activities. 
The new faculty members, increased student body, inter- 
est and activity in research, heavy teaching schedules, 
plans for new buildings and further expansion of clinical 
services and the drive for the "First Million for the Medical 
School" stand out in my memory as "The Changing Twen- 

Most everyone who remembers the decade between 
1930-1940 generally thinks of it as "The Depression 
Thirties" and those of us at the medical school were no 
different than anyone else. It seemed that everybody was 
depressed for nearly four years. The world depression, 
which had been going on for several years, caught up 
with the United States and was signalled by the stock 
market crash in October, 1929. During the two trading 
days on the security markets, Friday, October 26 and 
Monday, October 29, more than 25,800,000 shares were 
sold in a rapidly collapsing market. This tremendous bust 
actually followed by several months a complete slow- 
down in national economics and business in general. The 
impact was felt almost immediately on the medical school. 

In San Francisco unemployment increased so that by 
the latter part of 1930, approximately 12% of the resi- 
dents of San Francisco were unemployed, had nothing 
with which to buy food, shelter, clothes or medical care. 
San Francisco City established a citizens' Committee on 
Relief, headed by the late Judge Max Sloss. Under this 
volunteer committee a group of three physicians set up a 
program of medical care in the homes, outpatient depart- 
ments and City and County Hospital for this large number 
of people on relief. Visits to our outpatient department 
rose in the first year of the national depression to about 
169,000 visits, Lane Hospital admissions dropped more 
than 35% and Stanford Hospital, usually occupied by 
patients who were financially able to pay their own way, 
had less than 50% occupancy. As a matter of fact, for 
2Vi years the third and fifth floors of Stanford Hospital 
were closed, all the furniture and equipment was covered 
with sheets. San Francisco City and County Hospital ad- 
missions increased by more than 40%. Executives of our 
clinical departments were constantly crying to the medi- 
cal school and hospital administration for more free bed 
funds. They were unable to train physicians without pati- 
ents. The teaching wards were half empty most of the 
time. Nurses were unemployed and in those days there 
was a significant number of well trained nurses who con- 
fined their work to special duty nursing in hospitals and 
homes. Stanford Medical School offered room in the 
nurses' residence and two meals a day plus a few dollars 
a week to as many unemployed nurses as the residence 
would accommodate. These splendid girls gave of their 
time in the various wards and on the floors but took turns 
on the nurses' registry list at taking new Jobs. No one 
took two jobs in a row until everyone on the list waiting 
for employment had a job. 

All of this was carried on at the local city level until 
1933, when business began to pick up. The federal gov- 
ernment took over the financing of relief activities and we 


were promptly swamped with such agencies, commissions 
and subdivisions thereof designated by various alpha- 
betical titles, including OPA, NRA, WPA, PWA, etc. How- 
ever, by the end of the summer of 1934 the medical 
school and its activities were back pretty much to normal. 

The big plans for a new medical school received a real 
shot in the arm as far as money raising was concerned by 
an offer, from an Eastern donor and his own foundation, 
of two and a half million dollars providing Stanford Uni- 
versity could raise one and three quarter million dollars 
to match this amount by local or regional gifts. Inasmuch 
as this had to be completed by February, 1932 and the 
fact that there was a terrible financial depression, grow- 
ing worse by the day, no great effort was made in a fund 
raising campaign. The deadline date came and went, we 
could not meet the requirements so we were back where 
we were in 1 926, nice plans but no money. 

In spite of the depression the University administration 
increased the tuition to $1 15 a quarter and added a few 
extra charges for laboratory breakage, etc. In 1931 
straight internships were established at Lane Hospital and 
a real program of residency training was initiated in nine 
departments. The resident staff now consisted of 15 in- 
ternes, 1 2 assistant residents and 9 residents. The require- 
ment of a thesis before qualifying for graduation was 
also discontinued the same year. In the spring of 1 933 the 
Stanford Medical Alumni Association was formed with 
the late Dr. Morton Gibbons as its president. This proved 
to be a great achievement and brought the alumni, fac- 
ulty and medical school administration into a close, 
friendly active group. 

In 1933 the student body was increased to 60 in the 
entering class. A curriculum study was made again. This 
time the changes were insignificant and consisted more of 
scheduling of student and faculty time rather than any 
basic change in subject matter or pedagogic techniques. 
A student health service was established, including medi- 
cal care in the hospital and clinics for all members of the 
student body. After much discussion and review of post- 
graduate teaching the medical school embarked on a 
series of postgraduate review courses in the summer of 
1935. These were directed towards physicians in active 
practice who could return to San Francisco and spend one 
full week in intensive review work, both clinical and 
didactic, in any one of several subjects. These were highly 
successful right from the beginning and in one form or 
another are still being conducted. 

There were a number of changes of importance in the 
faculty during this time, too. Dr. Emmet Rixford became 
Emeritus in 1930 and was succeeded by Dr. Leo Eloesser 
as Chief of the Stanford Surgical Service at the County 
Hospital. Dr. Eloesser, known as the "Little Giant" be- 
cause he worked practically any and all hours of the 24 
every day, continued his active service until his retirement 
in 1 944. It was Leo Eloesser who pioneered in thoracic 
surgery on the West Coast. Dr. Leonard Ely, Chief of our 
Division of Orthopedics retired in 1934 and was suc- 
ceeded by Dr. Donald King, at that time a handsome, 
enthusiastic and energetic well-trained orthopedist, 
whom we brought back to Stanford after several years at 
the University of Michigan. Dr. Henry Mehrtens' sudden 
death created a vacancy in neurology and psychiatry and 
he was succeeded in the autumn of 1933 by Dr. George 
S. Johnson. Dr. Johnson opened neurology and psychi- 
atry teaching to the wards in general medicine and sur- 
gery and developed teaching in what is commonly known 
as psychosomatic medicine shortly after his arrival. Dr. 
Alfred B. Spaulding was given a leave of absence and 

early retirement from the faculty because of illness and 
in 1934 Dr. Ludwig Emge took over the administration of 
the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. A. W. 
Meyer's retirement in 1938 lead to the appointment of 
Dr. Charles H. Danforth in the Department of Anatomy. 
Ernest C. Dickson was followed in 1939 by the appoint- 
ment of Charles E. "Snuffy" Smith in Public Health and 
Preventive Medicine. Stanford Medical School absorbed 
the San Francisco Polyclinic service at San Francisco Hos- 
pital in 1933, thus putting the administrative responsi- 
bilities and opportunities of professional medical care 
and teaching at the San Francisco Hospital in the hands 
of the medical school faculties of the University of Cali- 
fornia and Stanford. 

We received a magnificent gift from the late Mrs. Lucy 
Stern, known to Stanford students as "Aunt Lucy." This 
was a promise to pay the bills for the construction of a 
building on Clay Street to be devoted entirely to medical 
research. This was like money from home. Promptly, and 
without delay, a building was planned and constructed, 
equipped, dedicated and opened for operation in the 
autumn of 1939, Mrs. Stern paying all the bills. To this 
day I don't know and I don't know anyone else who does 
know exactly how much that building and its extras cost. 

The same year we established a child guidance clinic 
under the immediate direction of Dr. Hale Shirley, who 
held a joint appointment in psychiatry and the Depart- 
ment of Pediatrics. This division has really flourished in 
the past 20 years and has made a splendid record of its 
activities, both teaching and investigations. 

I was impressed by the impact of the economic depres- 
sion on the applicants for admission to medical school as 
I had been impressed in the "Changing Twenties" with 
the effect of a boom. During good times, economically, 
outstanding students can get employment or places in 
attractive work without spending as many years in col- 
lege as is necessary to get an M.D. degree. During the 
depression, however, most students couldn't get a job no 
matter how bright they were because of the tremendous 
nationwide unemployment. Therefore, students stayed in 
the colleges and universities for advanced or graduate 
work. Many of them were attracted to medicine. 

The latter half of this decade was peaceful. The de- 
pression was over, national economy had improved, un- 
employment dropped and the medical school added to its 
faculty from time to time. The faculty, many of them ac- 
quired during the late twenties and early thirties, consoli- 
dated into a happy, enthusiastic, cooperative team. An 
annual Senior class-Faculty dinner, given the last day of 
examinations for the senior class was established in 1 935. 
Revolving loan funds for students needing financial as- 
sistance were enlarged. Gifts for research increased. 
Although the war, which already had started in Europe, 
cast a shadow over our future plans during the last part 
of the "Depression Thirties," nevertheless, Stanford Medi- 
cal School was a happy ship during this period. 

The peaceful progress at the medical school was inter- 
rupted in 1940 by the declaration of a state of National 
Emergency and the establishment of compulsory military 
service for all males from 1 8 to 36 years of age. Actually, 
the beginning of the "Fighting Forties" was October 17, 
1 940, when the orders went out from Washington to 
establish selective service agencies and put them in action 
throughout the various states and counties. Volunteer 
selective service boards were established by districts 
within larger cities and in all counties. The immediate 
problems of the medical school were the deferment from 
military service of medical students so they could com- 


plete their medical education and serve as physicians, 
secondly, some method of deferring premedical students 
who were likely candidates for admission to medical 
schools and, third, the problem of maintaining an ade- 
quate faculty. 

These three problems required much discussion be- 
tween medical school and university administrators on 
the one hand, the Secretary of War and the divisions of 
manpower and selective service headquarters in Wash- 
ington on the other. This required many meetings and 
trips by air between San Francisco and the East Coast. 
Eventually a system was worked out whereby all medical 
students in good standing were to be deferred until 
graduation and completion of an internship. At that time 
they were to be inducted into the Armed Services if physi- 
cally fit. 

Reserve units were brought up to full strength. This 
included about 6 medical corps reserve units in San 
Francisco. Plans were made to reduce the faculty to 
minimum essential personnel but the dark days of war 
came with the bombing of Honolulu on December 7, 1 941 . 
Immediately, practically everything in the United States 
went on a war schedule. Industry began to expand, em- 
ployment on the West Coast doubled or tripled, new ship 
yards were built, airplane factories, munition plants, 
equipment manufacturers went into high gear. 

Shortly after the Declaration of War the medical 
schools went on a continuous teaching program known 
as the 9-9-9 Medical Plan. This meant that Stanford 
Medical School opened its regular classes in September, 
1941, continued for the 9 months ending on a Friday 
afternoon in June, 1942, but the following Monday we 
began the next academic year. This continued throughout 
the period of war and during the four years we graduated 
five classes from the medical school. 

The need for young physicians in the Armed Forces was 
tremendous and for this reason the medical schools of the 
United States adopted the continuous teaching program. 
Approximately 35% of our faculty were away on mili- 
tary leaves of absence. We at Stanford agreed that there 
would be no faculty promotions of those who remained 
home as long as the war lasted and only such replace- 
ments as were essential would be made. The concentra- 
tion of subject matter, the continuous teaching program 
without vacations, the minimum faculty doing the work 
resulted in some deterioration of the quality of our medi- 
cal school teaching. Non-military research was reduced 
almost to a minimum but new investigations were under- 
taken, usually at the request of some branch of the fed- 
eral government. In Washington an overall director of 
research financed in part or in whole by tax funds was 
established as the Office of Scientific Research and De- 
velopment, usually called O. S. R. D. It was direci d by 
Dr. Vannevar Bush of the Carnegie Institute. This , led 
out to be highly advantageous, extremely successf. nd 
operated at a high degree of efficiency. 

Also, shortly after the war all students of draft age, 
including premedical students, were put under the direc- 
tion of the Army or Navy. The A. S. T. P. Army Student 
Training Program) and the Navy V-12 program for pre- 
medical and medical students were established in the 
universities and medical schools. This meant a military 
headquarters with officers and personnel to direct the 
non-educational activities of the students. Students were 
on active duty in uniform, paid as soldiers, assigned to 
duty at their respective medical schools, had extra mili- 
tary training in addition to their medical school studies. 
This also created an atmosphere of rush, shortcuts, excite- 
ment and, at times, deep frustration on the part of every- 
body involved. 

Because of the speedup in industry, particularly in the 
San Francisco Bay Area, salaries kept rising to a fantastic 
amount for day labor, either full-time or part-time. There 
was no unemployment in this area for anybody who was 
employable and wanted a job. All of this had definite 
effect on the hospitals and clinics. Visits in our outpatient 
department dropped down to about 104,000 a year, a 
35% drop. Lane Hospital admissions dropped more than 
25% to about 4,200 a year. Stanford Hospital, occupied 
by those who could pay their own way for hospital and 
medical care, increased its occupancy by some 52% the 
first year. The San Francisco Hospital occupancy and 
admissions remained about the same. A good example 
was the change in the Delivery Room. In the year 1940- 
1941 Stanford Hospital had less than 800 deliveries. 
During 1941-1942 our deliveries increased to more than 
1700. Fortunately in 1939 we had completed the con- 
struction and had occupied a new Lying-in Suite, an addi- 
tion to the East wing of the top floor of Stanford Hospital. 
This was made possible by gifts from friends of the medi- 
cal school and provided three delivery rooms, several 
preparation rooms and five bed rooms. Expectant mothers 
could be admitted to the hospital, go directly to the Lying- 
in Suite, go through labor and delivery, then make one 
move to the hospital accommodations after the birth of 
the child. Without this the increase in deliveries would 
have swamped out old facilities completely. 

The interns were permitted to serve a 9 month service 
and then enter the Army, Navy or Air Corps. There were 
no deferrments for residents beyond the 9 month intern- 
ship except for those who were already in their training 
when war was declared. We secured deferments for 
essential faculty but the number of men in various depart- 
ments became very thin towards the end of the war and 
most of our faculty was dreadfully overworked. We tried 
to maintain as best we could our prewar standards, 
teaching methods and service activities and on the whole 
did a pretty terrific job. The adoption of the 9-9-9 pro- 
gram was very unwise as an educational procedure, how- 

One of the outstanding memories of those days is the 
annual Senior Class-Faculty dinner. They were great 


events because each class membership was scattered to 
the four corners of the world within a day or two after- 
wards. One of the best was the dinner party of 1944. 
There were several good musicians in this class and the 
music that was written for the senior play included such 
songs as "The Clay Street Blues" and several others that 
are still good and appropriate and, at times, still sung at 
medical school gatherings. The Dean had a transcription 
made of "The Clay Street Blues" by the quartet before 
they left. Records were made and sent to as many of our 
Stanford Medical School graduates who were in the 
Armed Services as possible. 

Even though the war was on we made a few lasting 
and significant changes during the four year period. In 
1942 our Medical Alumni Bulletin was changed to the 
Stanford Medical Bulletin and published jointly by the 
medical school and the Alumni Association. This became 
and has remained one of the best publications at Stan- 
ford. In 1944 the University Board of Trustees asked the 
president to review everything that Stanford was doing, 
to determine what was good and should be kept and 
expanded, what wasn't so good, should be improved or 
stopped and what we were not doing that we should be 
doing. This included the medical school and such a survey 
was made by a committee headed by Dr. Harold K. Faber. 
The study lasted until 1 946 and at that time recommenda- 
tions were made as a result of the findings. The important 
one was that the medical school should be modernized 
and expanded as far as buildings were concerned in San 
Francisco. After Board of Trustee approval, plans and 
specifications for a new medical school building were 
made and definite fund raising for the School of Medicine 
was incorporated in an overall plan of securing addi- 
tional gifts and contributions to the University as a whole. 
No great progress was made, however, and the death of 
President Donald Tresidder in January, 1 948 put all these 
plans and activities in abeyance for a considerable length 
of time. 

In 1945 the Mission Emergency Hospital, housed in the 
San Francisco Hospital on Potrero Street, but operated, 
financed and administered by the San Francisco Depart- 
ment of Health through a separate division known as the 
Emergency Hospital Service, was incorporated into the 
San Francisco Hospital. This meant that the faculty, stu- 
dents, interns and residents of the two university medical 
schools had entire charge of all patients admitted to the 
Mission Emergency as well as to the San Francisco City 
and County Hospital. This made quite an improvement in 
our teaching material. 

The war ended in 1945, at least the shooting stopped 
even though permanent peace was not established. The 
9-9-9 program ended for Stanford at a fortunate time 
because we finished our regular academic year in June, 
1945 and had our first vacation since the summer of 
1941. The 9-9-9 program did accomplish its purpose, 
however, which was to supply young physicians to the 

Armed Services. More than 36,000 young doctors went 
from the medical schools into the Armed Services during 
this 4 year period. V-12 and A. S. T. P. units were dis- 
banded and the medical schools went back to civilian 
status. Most of our faculty, however, did not return until 
the summer of 1946 so that we were still short handed 
during the year 1 945-1 946. 

Most of us thought we were back to peaceful progress 
again but we were immediately overwhelmed with the 
details of administration and execution of the Veteran's 
educational benefits. These benefits provided tuition and 
certain living expenses for veterans whose educations 
had been interrupted or had not actually begun. Of 
course this included medical and premedical students. 
About 2/3 of our student body were veterans so the 
registrar, accounting department and medical school 
executives were overwhelmed with paper work, end of 
quarter reports and questionnaires. Residencies were ex- 
panded, refresher courses were in great demand, fellow- 
ship funds were obtained to enlarge our graduate teach- 
ing program and in 1948 the tuition was raised to $233 
each quarter. In 1948-1949 Stanford-Lane Hospitals had 
17 interns, 38 assistant residents, 11 residents and 38 
fellows. Most of the latter were assigned as additional 
members of the resident staff or fellows in research. In 
1948 radiology was changed from a division in the De- 
partment of Medicine and given departmental status in 
the medical school. 

Times were good and a post-war civilian boom started 
in 1946 which again influenced our hospital and teach- 
ing program. Outpatient clinic visits rose by another 
9,000 or 10,000 per year, Stanford Hospital admissions 
rose to 8,000 and more. Lane Hospital admissions 
reached over 6,1 00 in 1 948. 

On July 1, 1946 Stanford and the University of Cali- 
fornia Schools of Medicine took over the professional 
staffing and medical care of all the patients in the Fort 
Miley Veteran's Hospital. This arrangement was made 
possible by the Veterans Administration by the establish- 
ment of the "Deans Committee Veterans Hospitals" 
throughout the country. These teaching facilities were 
available for interns and residents but not for medical 
students. Our affiliation has proved invaluable, both to 
the Veterans as well as to the medical schools. 

Several members of our faculty developed keen inter- 
ests in the technique of heart catheterization as a diag- 
nostic procedure in heart disease. After considerable study 
and much hard work on the part of several of the staff, 
new monies were secured, space found in the hospital 
and the cardiac laboratory was opened in March, 1949, 
Dr. Herbert Hultgren in charge. Actually, the activities of 
the laboratory were a joint venture by cardiologists, 
radiologists, chemists, physiologists and surgeons. At 
present, this laboratory examines about 25 patients per 
month and has expanded its activities to include respira- 


tory functions and research of several kinds in heart 

By virtue of university rules and birthdays and in one or 
two instances, raids by other universities, Stanford Medi- 
cal School went through a great turnover in executives of 
departments and chiefs of service after the war. Dr. 
Eloesser became Professor Emeritus in 1944 and was suc- 
ceeded at the San Francisco Hospital by Dr. Carl Mathew- 
son, who took charge of the surgical service as soon as he 
was discharged from the Army in the autumn of 1945. 
Dr. Robert McNaught succeeded Dr. fiacher in Ear, Nose 
and Throat and Dr. Emge was succeeded by Dr. Charles 
McLennan in 1947. Dr. Wyckoff became Emeritus that 
year, as did Dr. Tom Addis. Dr. John Luetscher joined our 
faculty, Henry Kaplan succeeded Bob Newell in radiology 
and Ed Maumenee succeeded Hans Barkan in ophthal- 
mology, all in 1948. "Uncle George" Barnett retired in 
1 949 and was succeeded by J. K. Lewis. Henry Weyrauch 
succeeded James Dillon in urology, Bill Greulich followed 
Danforth in anatomy, Jeff Crismon succeeded Weymouth 
in physiology and John Anderson followed Harold Faber 
in pediatrics. Rodney Beard took over where "Snuffy" 
Smith left off in public health and preventive medicine, 
all in the year 1949. We regretted losing "Snuffy" Smith 
because he moved from Stanford to the University of Cali- 
fornia as full Professor and Dean of the School of Public 

This ended about 20 years together for this group of 
outstanding members of our faculty as most of them be- 
came Chiefs of their departments or divisions in the Twen- 
ties. In recalling the individuals and happenings of this 
period I am impressed by the tremendous amount of 
teaching of undergraduate medical students, interns and 
nurses that was done by the men of professorial rank. The 
leaders in every department spent large blocks of their 
time in the classroom, laboratories, wards and clinics. 
This, to me, has been a most potent factor at Stanford 
Medical School. 

In trying to recall the outstanding events which have 
occured on Clay street as well as throughout the Nation 
during the past 10 years, I find many things that are ex- 
citing, thrilling, some of them almost unbelievable, most 
of them good, but some of them confusing. Even the so- 
called "police action" which began in Korea in June, 
1 950 and did not end until the summer of 1 953 is already 
a little hazy as far as details are concerned. We have 
more atomic fission and fusion, then jets, missiles, satel- 
lites and now moonshots. There has been deficit financ- 
ing, new faculty committees, submarines under the ice, 
business booms and bulls in Wall Street, higher taxes, 
sport cars, real estate subdivisions, linear accelerators, 
heart surgery, instant coffee and research in dozens and 
dozens of fields. All; of this makes me identify the present 
decade as the "Fabulous Fifties." 

Actually, the Korean War did not affect the medical 
school nearly as violently as did World War II. Some of 


our younger faculty members were called to active duty, 
come of our students, both medical and premedical, had 
their plans upset but on the whole the medical school 
weathered this 3 year period with far less struggle than 
we had in 1940-1945. 

In March, 1951, the Board of Trustees reaffirmed their 
intention to proceed with the plans to expand and mod- 
ernize the medical school in San Francisco. These plans 
were based on the recommendations and studies of the 
Faber Committee, which submitted its report in 1946. The 
Alumni and the public were informed. A drive for funds 
was started. However, in the spring of 1952 the Univer- 
sity Administration decided to review again the whole 
problem of the medical school's future. A new committee 
was appointed to study what would be best for medical 
education at Standford. This committee did a very thor- 
ough job and reported to the President of the University 
in the spring of 1953. On July 16 of that year the Board 
of Trustees announced the plan to establish a new medi- 
cal school on the Stanford campus. Immediately there was 
great activity for these future plans. Fund raising, archi- 
tects and building plans, new equipment and construc- 
tion were given immediate attention. Faculty committees 
were appointed to study curriculum content, methods of 
teaching, integration of subject material, educational ob- 
jectives and operating budgets. All this work had to be 
done in addition to regular medical school duties. 

Many faculty changes have taken place in the last 10 
years. In 1951 Dr. Paul Hanzlik retired and was succeed- 
ed by Windsor Cutting as Executive in the Department of 
Pharmacology. Dr. Cutting, however, was promoted to 
Dean of the School of Medicine in 1953. That same year 
Dr. Edward W. Schultz became Professor Emeritus and 
was succeeded as Executive of the Department of Bac- 
teriology and Experimental Pathology by our own Dr. 
Sidney Raffel. In 1954 neurosurgery, as a division of our 
Department of Surgery, was established under the direc- 
tion of Dr. John Hanbery. Psychiatry finally was weaned 
from the Department of Medicine and given departmental 
status with George S. Johnson as its Chief. The same year 
Dr. Arthur L, Bfoomfield, "The Professor" for 28 years at 
Stanford retired from our faculty. He was succeeded by 
Dave Rytand. 

In 1955 the Department of Bacteriology and Experi- 
mental Pathology expanded its activities and changed its 
name to Medical Microbiology. Dr. Holman became Pro- 
fessor Emeritus and was followed by Dr. Victor Richards 
as Executive of the Department of Surgery. On November 
1 8, 1 955 the new linear accelerator was dedicated in our 
Department of Radiology at Stanford Hospital. In a mat- 
ter of weeks the first patients were receiving super voltage 
therapy from the new instrument. Dr. Avram Goldstein 
joined our faculty in 1 955 as Executive of the Department 
of Pharmacology. Dr. Edward Maumenee resigned to ac- 
cept the Chair In Opthalmology at Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity and was followed by Dr. Dohrmann PischeJ. Dr. John 

Anderson resigned to accept a post in pediatrics at the 
University of Minnesota School of Medicine and Dr. Rob- 
ert Alway was appointed his successor at Stanford. In 
September, 1 955 a Board of Governors was appointed to 
be the administrative body of Stanford Hospital. The 
direction of Stanford Hospital was removed from the 
School of Medicine and placed directly under our Board 
of Trustees through the hospital Board of Governors. The 
next year, 1956, tuition fees for medical students were 
raised to $355 a quarter, which is 6 Vi times greater than 
the tuition fees were at the beginning of this tale. 

During these early years in 1950 research activities 
were increased in all departments, stimulated by the in- 
quisitive interests of our own faculty and aided greatly 
by funds available for research from the federal govern- 
ment, societies and foundations for special diseases as 
well as from private donations. The Cardiovascular Labo- 
ratory had created much interest in the young specialty 
known as heart surgery and active experimentation was 
conducted both by surgeons, radiologists, physiologists, 
chemists and others working as a team. Our personnel 
was increased for research. There were numerous addi- 
tions to the faculty. Research fellowships were made 
available and teamwork, including those who could con- 
tribute substantially to an investigation, became a most 
productive method in many fields. Our first open heart 
operation was performed in March, 1956, using an arti- 
ficial heart-lung machine, actually developed, designed 
and built here. By the end of 1 956 Stanford Hospital had 
16 residents, 75 assistant residents and 16 interns, a 
resident staff of 107 people, many of them working in 
research laboratories as well as clinics and wards. 

The economics and business boom which really started 
after World War I continued. The nation's industries were 
expanding and the bulls were loose on Wall Street. Again 
the national economy affected our clinics and hospitals. 
Visits in our Outpatient Department decreased from 1 15,- 
000 in 1950 to about 98,000 in 1958. Admissions to our 
clinic wards dropped from over 5,100 to about 4,300 
during the same time. 

In 1957 Dr. Windsor Cutting resigned as Dean. He was 
followed by Dr. Robert Alway, who first assumed his 
duties as Acting Dean, but shortly accepted a permanent 
appointment. In 1958 Lane Hospital was condemned by 
the California State Bureau of Hospitals for further care 
of bed patients. This really created a problem for pati- 
ents, staff, students and administration. All patients in 
Lane Hospital had to be moved and provisions made 
in Stanford Hospital for their care. This meant doubling 
up 2 or 3 beds in rooms that were not originally built for 
such purposes. Hospital employees were overworked, 
patients were crowded together and accommodations 
were unsatisfactory much of the time. However, as the 
old song "Clay Street Blues" says, "Life went on just the 
same" even under handicaps of this kind. At present, 
there are only 15 private rooms in Stanford Hospital, all 

others have 2 or more patients in them. 

With the beginning of the academic year, 1958, Dr. 
David Rytand resigned as Executive of the Department of 
Medicine, Dr. Victor Richards resigned as Executive of the 
Department of Surgery and Dr. George S. Johnson re- 
signed as the Executive of the Department of Psychiatry. 
This spring Stanford University decided to give up its 
teaching affiliation with the San Francisco City and Coun- 
ty Hospital effective July 1 of this year. The medical 
school also plans to discontinue its participation in the 
"Dean's Committee, Veterans Hospital" at Fort Miley, 
San Francisco in 1960. Dr. Joshua Letterberg has been 
appointed to our faculty to assume direction of a new 
Department of Genetics in the School of Medicine. Dr. 
GarrottAllen will be the Executive of the Department of 
Surgery and Dr. Norman Kretchmer comes here as Execu- 
tive in our Department of Pediatrics when the medical 
center on the Stanford campus is activated. 

During the past two years many of our faculty who 
look forward to the opening of the medical center on the 
campus have changed their residences from San Fran- 
cisco to the campus or near vicinities. During the same 
time the swarm of faculty committees and subcommittees, 
working vigorously and with enthusiasm, produced a 
great deal of static but finally presented, and the faculty 
adopted, a program and policy for the new school. "The 
major objective of the plan is to provide the medical stu- 
dent with an educational experience sufficiently broad to 
enable him to make an informed choice among the op- 
portunities in medicine. Students will be accepted after 
at least three years of college (two years in exceptional 
cases) into a five year medical program, during the first 
three years of which provision is made for the equivalent 
of an additional non-medical year." 

Ground breaking ceremonies were held on the site of 
the new medical center on September 1 1, 1956 and con- 
struction began in June, 1957. The new buildings are al- 
most complete at this writing and will be occupied before 
the autumn quarter this year. 

There has been much talk of moving the medical school 
but unfortunately this school cannot be moved. The school 
on Clay Street has lived a useful and worthy life. Many 
superior physicians, considerable research of funda- 
mental value and two great groups of teachers have 
made Stanford Medical School's reputation outstanding 
during the past 40 years. Our school has been recognized 
as superior, not only in the United States but in many 
foreign countries. The countdown on all these activities of 
the school in San Francisco has already started. The old 
school as it has been known will close this summer. A new 
school, new in location, philosophy, objectives, curricula 
and with many new faces on the faculty will be born in 
September, 1 959 on the Stanford campus. 

The King is dead. Long Live the King! 



Class of 195< 

Class of 1961 

The time and effort of the following 
people have made this book possible: 

Editor: Wilmer C. Allen 

Associate Editors: James H. Pingree, 
Robert L. Johnson, Creighton G. Bel- 
linger, Stephen R. Gospe 

Assisants: Keith Anderson, Charles 
Basye, Rosalie Basye, James Cole- 
man, Ralph Dilley, Lucille Hall, Pat 
Helsten, Jean Horn, Martin Johnson, 
Gary Katz, Boyd Nies, Frances Schutt, 
Dudley Scott, Harold Strauch, Nick 
Trueblood, Sarah Trueblood 

Photography: Gerald Bassett, Melvin 
Hall, Frank Loffer, John McFee, Bern- 
ard Nelson, Henry Omi, Gilbert Rob- 
erts, Edward Titus, Paul Tracey 

Cover: Doreen Davis 

Business: Cooley Butler, Michael Braver- 
man, Henry Davis, Richard Horn, Pat 
McMillan, Jack Palmer, Steve Thomas, 
Richard Warren, Phil Westbrook 

Contributors: Robert Alway, M.D.; Percy 
Baumberger, Sc. D.; Rodney Beard, 
M.D.; Loren Chandler, M.D.; Aivin 
Cox, M.D.; Windsor Cutting, M.D.; 
C. H. Danforth, Ph.D.; Avram Gold- 
stein, M.D.; Harold Faber, M.D.; C. 
Frederic Fluhmann, M.D.; Emile Hol- 
man, M.D.; George Johnson, M.D.; 
Henry Kaplan, M.D.; Hubert Loring, 
Ph.D.; Sidney Raffel, M.D.; Lowell 
Rantz, M.D.; David Rytand, M.D. 


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